Bone Skates Database

This database contains information gathered for the bone skate project by Hans Christian Küchelmann and Petar Zidarov for the 4th Meeting of the ICAZ Worked Bone Research Group (WBRG) at Tallinn, Estonia, August 2003.
The database will be updated as new evidence evolves. Anybody who likes to contribute information about bone skate finds not listed here is welcome. Please contact info@knochenarbeit.de.

Explanations
Modifications:
The majority of the examples found show the following orientation of the skate in relation to the bone:
cranial / dorsal side of bone = gliding side of skate
caudal / palmar / plantar side of bone = standing side of skate
distal end of bone = front of skate
proximal end of bone = rear of skate
Known exceptions are noted in the remarks column.
1 distal end shaped to a pointed tip bone skate 1
2 distal end dorsal / cranial bevelled bone skate 2
3 proximal end dorsal / cranial bevelled bone skate 3
4 chopping of lateral and medial side distal bone skate 4
5 chopping of lateral and medial side proximal bone skate 5
6 chopping of caudal / plantar / palmar side distal bone skate 6
7 chopping of caudal / plantar / palmar side proximal bone skate 7
8 drilled transverse hole distal bone skate 8
9 drilled transverse hole proximal bone skate 9
10 drilled axial hole in the proximal articulation surface bone skate 10
11 two oblique holes distal bone skate 11
12 two oblique holes proximal bone skate 12
13 other holes (see remarks column)
14 iron loop in distal articulation surface
15 iron loop in proximal articulation surface bone skate 15
16 other fastening device (see remarks column)
17 roughening of the caudal / palmar / plantar side by blows with coarse tool bone skate 17
18 flattening of the cranial / dorsal side evident by visible grinding or chopping marks
19 upper half of the caudal / palmar / plantar side of the bone removed, medullar cavity exposed bone skate 19
The following modifications are not mentioned since they are part of the functional
definition of bone skates:
• Removing of protruding parts of the later gliding surface
• A plane, polished gliding surface with predominantly axial striations resulting from use
Species:
Cattle = Bos taurus
Donkey = Equus asinus
Horse = Equus caballus
Red deer = Cervus elaphus
Sheep = Ovis aries
Wolf = Canis lupus
Dating:
BC = before Christ, AD = Anno Domini, cent. = century
References quoted in table (pdf-file, 804 kB)
LocationCountryDatingPeriodCultureNSpeciesSkeletal
Element
ModificationRemarksReferenceCollectionArchive
Number
Palanga, Birutė hill settlementLithuania12th - 13th cent.Middle Age1horsemetacarpus2Zulkus 1997, 259-260, fig. 165
OldeboornNetherlands11th - 12th cent.High Middle Age1horsemetatarsus8, 9Zeiler 1988, fig. 1
WellinghusenGermany7th - 12th cent.Middle Age1cattleMetacarpus2 Witt 2002, 281, foto 14
PoznanPolandMiddle Age1horsemetacarpus1, 2, 8, 13oblique hole posteriopalmarWiniarska-Kabacinska pers. com. 10.9.2009Poznan Archaeological Museum
PoznanPolandMiddle Age3030-40 specimenWiniarska-Kabacinska pers. com. 10.9.2009Poznan Archaeological Museum
Groß StrömkendorfGermany7th cent.Early Middle AgeSlavic1Wietrzichowski 1992a, 162
Remsthal, SchwabenGermanyno date1horsevon Trölsch 1902, 101
PrinzendorfAustriano dateno date1red deertibiaVohnicky 1933, 86Landesmuseum Niederösterreich St. Pölten660
FrauenhofenAustriano dateno date1horsemetatarsus19Vohnicky 1933Heimatmuseum Tulln
Holt under EyjafjöllumIcelandno date1CattleMetatarsus2visit Skogar Museum 21.10.2017Exhibition Skogar Folkmuseum
KorpooFinland19th cent.?Modern Time1HorseMetapodium19Vilppula 1940, fig. 3KansallismuseonD 172
KokemäkiFinland19th cent.?Modern Time1HorseMetapodium19Vilppula 1940, fig. 3Kansallismuseon2031:24:00
IlmajokiFinland19th cent.?Modern Time1HorseMetapodium2, 4, 5, 11, 12, 19Vilppula 1940, fig. 1Ilmajoen Museo1498
KuusistoFinlandMiddle Age1??Vilppula 1940, 54, 58KM 2801:58
North East BulgariaBulgariano dateno date5??Vázarova 1986
Wijk near DorestadNetherlands8th - 10th cent.Middle Age1horsemetapodiumvan Vilsteren 1987, 47-48, fig. 71Rijksmuseum van Oudheden LeidenWD 659
Schleswig, PlessenstrasseGermany11th cent.High Middle Age1CattleMetatarsus2, 4Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 90.6
Schleswig, PlessenstrasseGermany11th cent.High Middle Age1CattleMetapodium1, 2, 11Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 90.5
Schleswig, PlessenstrasseGermany11th cent.High Middle Age1CattleMetacarpus1, 2, 10, 11Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 90.4
Schleswig, PlessenstrasseGermany11th cent.High Middle Age1CattleMetacarpus2, 4Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 90.3
Schleswig, PlessenstrasseGermany11th cent.High Middle Age1CattleMetatarsus2, 4Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 90.2
Schleswig, PlessenstrasseGermany11th cent.High Middle Age1HorseMetacarpus1, 2, 3, 8, 10Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 90.1
Schleswig, PlessenstrasseGermany11th cent.High Middle Age1HorseMetapodium2, 18unfinishedUlbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 89.4
Schleswig, PlessenstrasseGermany11th cent.High Middle Age1HorseMetapodium1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 89.3
Schleswig, PlessenstrasseGermany11th cent.High Middle Age1HorseMetapodium1, 2, 8Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 89.2
Schleswig, SchildGermany11th - 14th cent.Middle Age1CattleMetapodium2, 4distal end sawnUlbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 41.1
Schleswig, PlessenstrasseGermany11th cent.High Middle Age40HorseMetapodiumUlbricht 1984, 39, 60
Schleswig, PlessenstrasseGermany11th cent.High Middle Age1HorseRadiusUlbricht 1984, 39, 60
Schleswig, PlessenstrasseGermany11th cent.High Middle Age21CattleMetapodiumUlbricht 1984, 39, 60
Schleswig, PlessenstrasseGermany11th cent.High Middle Age1CattleRadiusUlbricht 1984, 39, 60
Schleswig, PlessenstrasseGermany11th cent.High Middle Age1??Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60
Schleswig, SchildGermany11th - 14th cent.Middle Age6CattleMetapodiumUlbricht 1984, 39, 60
Schleswig, PlessenstrasseGermany11th cent.High Middle Age1HorseMetacarpus1, 2, 8, 10, 17wooden peg in axial holeUlbricht 1982, 24-27, fig. 9; 1984, 39, 60, pl. 89.1
Noarootsi, Sutlep village, Seffers farmEstoniano date1horsemetapodium2, 5, 6Tulev, e-mail 28.8.2016; 9.10.2017
Lake SettlementsSwitzerlandBronze Age????Tschumi 1949, 621
Donja DolinaBosnia5th - 3rd cent. BCEarly Iron AgeLate Hallstatt1horse?8 or 9, 11 or 12Truhelka 1904, 154-155, Fig. 107; Curcic 1912, 535
DurankulakBulgaria9th - 10th cent.Early Middle Age1?RadiusTodorova 1989, pl. 5
DurankulakBulgaria9th - 10th cent.Early Middle Age1HorseMetacarpusTodorova 1989, pl. 5
DurankulakBulgaria9th - 10th cent.Early Middle Age1?RadiusTodorova 1989, pl. 5
South West SlovakiaSlovakiaEarly Bronze AgeMadarovce???Tocik 1959
Riga, Occupation MuseumLatvia13th - 14th cent.Late Middle Age1CattleMetacarpusTilko 2005, fig. 5.2VI 172: 16
Riga, 8-10 Lielá Pils StreetLatvia13th - 14th cent.Late Middle Age1HorseMetacarpusTilko 2005, fig. 5.1VI 166: 236
Riga, St. George ChurchLatviaMiddle Age1HorseMetatarsus2, 9, 132 dorsoplantar holes distalTilko 2005, fig. 4.2
Riga, 8 Basteja BoulevardLatviaMiddle Age1CattleMetatarsus8, 9Tilko 2005, fig. 4.1VRVM 173945/5
Riga, Army Economical ShopLatvia13th - 16th cent.Late Middle Age - Early Modern Time1HorseMetatarsus2, 8, 9, 13, 192 holes proximal and distal drilled perpendicular into transverse holes Tilko 2005, fig. 3AEV 162
Aizkraukle Hill-fortLatvia10th - 13th cent.Middle Age2Tilko 2005, 147
LaukskolaLatvia11th - 13th cent.Middle Age1Tilko 2005, 146-147VI 128: 7283
MártinsalaLatvia13th - 14th cent.Late Middle Age2Tilko 2005, 146VI 121: 1054, 1055
MártinsalaLatvia13th - 14th cent.Late Middle Age113vertical holesTilko 2005, 146VI 121: 2130
Turaida CastleLatvia13th - 16th cent.Late Middle Age - Early Modern Time1Tilko 2005, 146
VentspilsLatvia14th - 16th cent.Late Middle Age - Early Modern Time2Tilko 2005, 146
Daugmale Hill-FortLatvia10th - 12th cent.High Middle Age20Tilko 2005, 146
AlúksneLatvia16th - 17th cent.Early Modern Time1Tilko 2005, 146
Arctic IslandsCanada500 BC - 1000 ADDorset3bone and ivorySutherland & McGhee 1998, 8exhibition Übersee-Museum Bremen 3/1999
NovgorodRussia10th - 14th cent.Middle Age50Horse, CattleMetapodium, Radius1, 8, 9more than 50 specimen; drilled holes mainly in 13th cent. findsStephen, e-mails 13.-15.8.2003
Ihre, Hellvi, GotlandSweden10th cent.High Middle AgeViking2HorseMetapodium2, 3Stenberger, 1961, 20, 51, fig. 51; Klindt-Jensen 1955, 857; Stenberger 1955, 1106
Ihre, Hellvi, GotlandSweden10th cent.High Middle AgeViking28, 9Stenberger 1955, 1106
Birka • Black EarthSweden8th - 10th cent.Early Middle AgeViking86cattle?Stenberger 1955, 1106
Birka • Black EarthSweden8th - 10th cent.Early Middle AgeViking26horse?Stenberger 1955, 1106
Burs church, GotlandSwedenMiddle Age1??Stenberger 1955, 1106
Lau, GotlandSweden13th cent.Late Middle Age1??Stenberger 1955, 1106
Gara BancaRomania4th - 5th cent.Migration PeriodMures-Cerneahov1cattleMetacarpus2Stanc & Bejenaru, presentation WBRG conference Paris 8/2007
SchwaikheimGermanyno dateno date1Speiser 2006Heimatverein Schwaikheim
London, MoorfieldsGreat Britainno dateno date1horsemetapodium1, 2, 8, 10falsely described as tibiaSmith 1848
HessensGermany10th - 11th cent.High Middle Age1horsemetapodium1, 2, 8, 10cranial surface worn down til medullar cavitySiegmüller 2010, 124-129, fig. 77Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven116
HessensGermany7th cent.Early Middle Age1horsemetapodium8, 10cranial surface worn down til medullar cavity, with woofen peg in holeSiegmüller 2010, 124-129, fig. 77Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven117
HessensGermany7th - 13th cent.Middle Age1cattlemetapodium11Siegmüller 2010, 124-129, fig. 77Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven118
HessensGermany7th - 13th cent.Middle Age1horsemetapodium1, 2, 10cranial surface worn down til medullar cavitySiegmüller 2010, 124-129, fig. 77Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven119
HessensGermany10th - 11th cent.High Middle Age1cattlemetatarsus1, 2, 18Siegmüller 2010, 124-129, fig. 78Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven120
HessensGermany9th - 10th cent.High Middle Age1horsemetapodium2, 3Siegmüller 2010, 124-129, fig. 78Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven121
HessensGermany9th - 10th cent.High Middle Age1cattlemetapodium2, 3Siegmüller 2010, 124-129, fig. 78Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven122
HessensGermany9th - 10th cent.High Middle Age1cattlemetapodium2, 10fragment, with wooden peg in holeSiegmüller 2010, 124-129, fig. 78Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven123
HessensGermany7th - 13th cent.Middle Age1cattlemetapodium2, 18Siegmüller 2010, 124-129, fig. 79Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven124
HessensGermany9th - 10th cent.High Middle Age1cattlemetapodiumfragmentSiegmüller 2010, 124-129, fig. 79Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven125
HessensGermany9th - 10th cent.High Middle Age1cattlemetapodium2not usedSiegmüller 2010, 124-129, fig. 79Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven126
HessensGermany7th - 13th cent.Middle Age1cattlemetapodium2, 3Siegmüller 2010, 124-129, fig. 79Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven127
HessensGermany7th - 13th cent.Middle Age1cattlemetacarpus2not usedSiegmüller 2010, 124-129, fig. 79Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven128
HessensGermany10th - 11th cent.High Middle Age1cattlemetacarpus2Siegmüller 2010, 124-129, fig. 80Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven129
HessensGermany8th - 9th cent.Early - High Middle Age1cattlemetacarpus2, 3Siegmüller 2010, 124-129, fig. 80Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven130
HessensGermany7th cent.Early Middle Age1cattlemetacarpus2Siegmüller 2010, 124-129, fig. 80Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven131
HessensGermany7th - 13th cent.Middle Age2lostSiegmüller 2010, 125-128Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven132-133
HessensGermany7th - 13th cent.Middle Age110lost, with woofen pegSiegmüller 2010, 125-128Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven134
RussiaRussiaMiddle Age1HorseMetapodium7Semenov 1959, 355, fig. 2.5
RussiaRussiaMiddle Age1HorseMetapodium4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9Semenov 1959, 355, fig. 2.3
RussiaRussiaMiddle Age1HorseMetapodium4, 5, 6, 7, 8Semenov 1959, 355, fig. 2.2
RussiaRussiaMiddle Age1HorseMetapodiumworn down till half of medullar cavitySemenov 1959, 354, fig. 1.5
RussiaRussiaMiddle Age1HorseMetapodiumSemenov 1959, 354, fig. 1.3
RussiaRussiaMiddle Age1HorseMetapodiumSemenov 1959, 354, fig. 1.2
RussiaRussiaMiddle Age1HorseMetapodium8Semenov 1957, fig. 105.4; 1959, 355, fig. 2.4
RussiaRussiaMiddle Age1HorseMetapodium4, 5, 6, 7, 8Semenov 1957, fig. 105.3; 1959, 355, fig. 2.1
RussiaRussiaMiddle Age1HorseMetapodiumSemenov 1957, fig. 105.2; 1959, 354, fig. 1.4
RussiaRussiaMiddle Age1HorseMetapodium18unfinishedSemenov 1957, fig. 105.1; 1959, 354, fig. 1.1
HöngedaGermanyBronze Age2horseradiusSellmann 1911, 69-70, pl. IX.6-7201, 204
Mühlhausen, ThüringenGermany1st cent. BCEarly Iron AgeLatène1horsemetacarpus1, 2Sellmann 1911, 68-70, pl. IX.5125
Groß RadenGermany9th - 10th cent.Early Middle AgeSlavic1HorseMetapodium1, 2, 18Schuldt 1985, fig. 25
Groß RadenGermany9th - 10th cent.Early Middle AgeSlavic3?Radius2Schuldt 1985, fig. 18, 19, 28
Groß RadenGermany9th - 10th cent.Early Middle AgeSlavic2HorseMetapodium2, 3Schuldt 1985, fig. 10, 22
Groß RadenGermany9th - 10th cent.Early Middle AgeSlavic2HorseMetapodium1, 2Schuldt 1985, fig. 9, 11
Groß RadenGermany9th - 10th cent.Early Middle AgeSlavic5CattleMetapodium2, 3Schuldt 1985
Groß RadenGermany9th - 10th cent.Early Middle AgeSlavic29??Schuldt 1985
TeterowGermany11th - 12th cent.High Middle Age1horse or cattleradius8, 9Schuldt 1960, Abb. 5Museum für Ur- und Frühgeschichte SchwerinKat. Nr. XXXIV b, 875
PremyslemiCzech RepublicEarly Bronze AgeKnoviz1horseSchranil 1928, 169
MenzlinGermany9th - 10th cent.High Middle AgeSlavic1horsemetapodium2fragment, unfinishedSchoknecht 1977, 99, 126, 192, T. 33.7Fundliste 28.7
MenzlinGermany9th - 10th cent.High Middle AgeSlavic1cattlemetapodium2fragment, unfinishedSchoknecht 1977, 99, 126, 192, T. 33.6Fundliste 28.6
MenzlinGermany9th - 10th cent.High Middle AgeSlavic1horseradius2fragment, unfinishedSchoknecht 1977, 99, 126, 192, T. 33.5Fundliste 28.5
MenzlinGermany9th - 10th cent.High Middle AgeSlavic1cattlemetapodium2unfinishedSchoknecht 1977, 99, 126, 192, T. 33.4Fundliste 28.4
MenzlinGermany9th - 10th cent.High Middle AgeSlavic1horsemetapodium2Schoknecht 1977, 99, 126, 192, T. 33.3Fundliste 28.3
MenzlinGermany9th - 10th cent.High Middle AgeSlavic1horsemetapodium2, 3Schoknecht 1977, 99, 126, 192, T. 33.2Fundliste 28.2
MenzlinGermany9th - 10th cent.High Middle AgeSlavic1horsemetatarsusSchoknecht 1977, 99, 126, 192, T. 33.1Fundliste 28.1
Slánská HoraCzech Republikno date1humanfemur1, 8Schmidt 1895National Museum Prague16.321
Hamburg, Kleine BäckerstraßeGermany13th-14th cent.Late Middle Age1horsemetatarsusSchindler 1957, 19-20Exhibition Museum für Hamburgische Geschichte, Hamburg 8/20161965,93
Middelstum BoerdamsterwegNetherlandsno dateno date1horsemetacarpus 2, 8worn down til medullary cavity; connection of magazine find to excavation not certainScheele, e-mail 18.8.2015Groningen Instituut voor ArcheologieGIA-1971.VII-II
BayernGermanyEarly Middle Age10??Schäffer & von den Driesch 1983
Podersdorf am SeeAustria12th cent.High Middle Age1horseradius2, 3Saliari & Bendeguz, e-mails 22.11.2016; 25.7.2017
HaapsaluEstonia16th cent.Early Modern Time1CattleMetatarsus2, 7Russow 2002, 131, fig. 11HM 8850: 55
Ostrówek, OpolePoland11th - 12th cent.High Middle Age1horsemetatarsus4Rozwód 200724/62
Ostrówek, OpolePoland12th cent.High Middle Age1horsemetacarpus1Rozwód 20071614/52
Ostrówek, OpolePoland12th cent.High Middle Age1horse4, 18Rozwód 20071052/53
Ostrówek, OpolePoland11th - 12th cent.High Middle Age1horsemetatarsus1, 2, 17Rozwód 20071243/54
Ostrówek, OpolePoland12th cent.High Middle Age1horsemetapodium1, 17Rozwód 20071240/53
Ostrówek, OpolePoland11th cent.High Middle Age1cattlemetatarsus2Rozwód 20071604:52
Ostrówek, OpolePoland12th - 13th cent.Middle Age1horsemetacarpusRozwód 20071676/52
Ostrówek, OpolePoland13th - 15th cent.Late Middle Age1horsemetapodium1, 2, 7, 17Rozwód 20079146/49
Ostrówek, OpolePoland10th - 14th cent.Middle Age1horsemetacarpus1, 2, 6, 7, 17Rozwód 2007A24
Ostrówek, OpolePoland11th cent.High Middle Age1Rozwód 2007217f/63
Ostrówek, OpolePoland10th - 14th cent.Middle Age1horsemetatarsus7Rozwód 20071835/53
Ostrówek, OpolePoland12th - 13th cent.Middle Age1horsemetacarpus2, 3Rozwód 2007213a/58
Thetford, EnglandGreat Britain9th - 11th cent.Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian3HorseRadiusRogerson & Dallas 1984, 177-179, fig. 195-197
Thetford, EnglandGreat Britain9th - 11th cent.Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian2HorseMetacarpusRogerson & Dallas 1984, 177-179, fig. 195-197
Thetford, EnglandGreat Britain9th - 11th cent.Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian4HorseMetatarsusRogerson & Dallas 1984, 177-179, fig. 195-197
Thetford, EnglandGreat Britain9th - 11th cent.Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1CattleRadiusRogerson & Dallas 1984, 177-179, fig. 195-197
Thetford, EnglandGreat Britain9th - 11th cent.Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian3CattleMetatarsusRogerson & Dallas 1984, 177-179, fig. 195-197
York, 46-54 FishergateGreat Britain1050 - 1150 ADHigh Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1horsemetatarsus1, 2, 10Rogers 1993, 1406-1408, fig. 688.5611; MacGregor et al. 1999, 1987Yorkshire Museum York5611
York, 46-54 FishergateGreat Britain1050 - 1150 ADHigh Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1horsemetapodium1, 2, 7, 10Rogers 1993, 1406-1408, fig. 688.5610; MacGregor et al. 1999, 1987Yorkshire Museum York5610
LundSweden11th -12th cent.High Middle AgeScandinavian1HorseMetacarpus8, 10Roesdahl 1992, 51, 233KM 66166:1511
SudweyheGermany1horsemetapodiumRentrop 2005, 58Kreismuseum Syke
ElisenhofGermany8th - 13th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus2, 3Reichstein 1994, 109, pl. 9.3-4
ElisenhofGermany8th - 13th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetacarpus2, 5Reichstein 1994, 109, pl. 9.2
ElisenhofGermany8th - 13th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetacarpus2, 4Reichstein 1994, 109, pl. 9.1
ElisenhofGermany8th - 13th cent.Middle Age1CattleRadiusReichstein 1994, 109, pl. 8.3
ElisenhofGermany8th - 13th cent.Middle Age1CattleMetatarsus2, 3Reichstein 1994, 109, pl. 8.1
ElisenhofGermany8th - 13th cent.Middle Age1CattleMetacarpus2Reichstein 1994, 109, pl. 7.4
ElisenhofGermany8th - 13th cent.Middle Age1CattleMetacarpus2Reichstein 1994, 109, pl. 7.3
ElisenhofGermany8th - 13th cent.Middle Age1CattleMetacarpus2Reichstein 1994, 109, pl. 7.2
ElisenhofGermany8th - 13th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetacarpus2, 8, 9Reichstein 1994, 109
ElisenhofGermany8th - 13th cent.Middle Age2CattleMetacarpus2, 8, 9Reichstein 1994, 109
ElisenhofGermany8th - 13th cent.Middle Age1CattleMetacarpus2palmar side = gliding sideReichstein 1994, 109
ElisenhofGermany8th - 13th cent.Middle Age19CattleMetacarpus2Reichstein 1994, 109
ElisenhofGermany8th - 13th cent.Middle Age29CattleMetatarsus2Reichstein 1994, 109
ElisenhofGermany8th - 13th cent.Middle Age7CattleRadius2Reichstein 1994, 109
ElisenhofGermany8th - 13th cent.Middle Age3HorseRadius2Reichstein 1994, 109
ElisenhofGermany8th - 13th cent.Middle Age7HorseMetacarpus2Reichstein 1994, 109
ElisenhofGermany8th - 13th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus2Reichstein 1994, 109
Feddersen WierdeGermany1st cent. BC - 4th cent. ADRoman Iron AgeGermanic1horsemetacarpus2Reichstein 1991a, 307; 1991b, pl. 61.1
Feddersen WierdeGermany1st cent. BC - 4th cent. ADRoman Iron AgeGermanic1cattlemetatarsus2Reichstein 1991a, 307; 1991b, pl. 59.2
Bremen, WachtstrasseGermany13th cent.Late Middle Age1HorseRadius2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9Rech 2004, 391-392, fig. 397.1Focke-Museum BremenFM 12131
EzingeNetherlandsno dateno date1horseMetacarpusPrummel et al. 2014, 221, 236, bijlage 4Noordelijk Archeologisch Depot Nuis593
EzingeNetherlandsno dateno date1cattleMetacarpusPrummel et al. 2014, 221, 227, 237, bijlage 4Noordelijk Archeologisch Depot NuisE30
EzingeNetherlands300 - 500 ADMigration Period1horseMetacarpus1, 8, 9Prummel et al. 2014, 218, 220, 227-228, 235, fig. 9, bijlage 4Noordelijk Archeologisch Depot Nuis162
EzingeNetherlands300 - 500 ADMigration Period1cattleMetatarsus10semi-finished skatePrummel et al. 2014, 217-218, 227-228, 235, fig. 9, bijlage 4Noordelijk Archeologisch Depot Nuis233
EzingeNetherlands100 - 300 ADRoman Iron Age1cattleMetatarsus2worn down til medullary cavityPrummel et al. 2014, 213, 215, 227-229, 237, fig. 7, bijlage 4Noordelijk Archeologisch Depot Nuis1189
EzingeNetherlands100 - 300 ADRoman Iron Age1cattleMetatarsus2semi-finished skatePrummel et al. 2014, 213, 215, 227-229, 237, fig. 7, bijlage 4Noordelijk Archeologisch Depot Nuis1368
Wijnaldum-TjitsmaNetherlands9th - 10th c. ADHigh Middle Age1horsemetatarsus2, 10Prummel et al. 2011, 72, 90-91, 94, fig. 32, tab. 4; 20137536
Wijnaldum-TjitsmaNetherlands8th - 9th c. ADEarly - High Middle Age2horsePrummel et al. 2011, 72, 90, tab. 4; 2013
Wijnaldum-TjitsmaNetherlands5th - 6th c. ADMigration Period1horsePrummel et al. 2011, 72, 90, 93, tab. 4; 2013; Prummel et al. 2014, 228
Wijnaldum-TjitsmaNetherlands5th - 6th c. ADMigration Period1Prummel et al. 2011, 72, 90, 93, tab. 4; 2013; Prummel et al. 2014, 228
Wijnaldum-TjitsmaNetherlands6th - 8th c. ADEarly Middle Age1cattleradiusPrummel et al. 2011, 72, 90, 93, tab. 4; 2013
Wijnaldum-TjitsmaNetherlands6th - 8th c. ADEarly Middle Age1Prummel et al. 2011, 72, 90, 93, tab. 4; 2013
AnjumNetherlands11th cent.High Middle Age1horsemetacarpus8Prummel & van Gent 2010, 43, fig. 9
AnjumNetherlands11th cent.High Middle Age1horseradius2, 8, 9, 13transverse hole in middle of shaft; cranial surface worn down till medullar cavityPrummel & van Gent 2010, 43, fig. 8
EnglumNetherlands3rd - 5th c. ADMigration Period1horsemetacarpusunfinishedPrummel 2011, 97-98
DongjumNetherlands5th - 6th c. ADMigration Period1Prummel 2011, 97-98
DongjumNetherlands6th - 8th c. ADEarly Middle Age1horsemetacarpusPrummel 2011, 97, 99
Leeuwarden-OldehoofsterkerkhofNetherlands8th - 9th c. ADEarly - High Middle Age1horsetibiaPrummel 2011, 97, 99
Leeuwarden-OldehoofsterkerkhofNetherlands8th - 9th c. ADEarly - High Middle Age2horsemetacarpusPrummel 2011, 97, 99
Leeuwarden-OldehoofsterkerkhofNetherlands9th - 10th c. ADHigh Middle Age1horsemetatarsusPrummel 2011, 97, 99
Leeuwarden-OldehoofsterkerkhofNetherlands5th - 8th c. ADMigration Period - Early Middle Age1horsemetatarsusPrummel 2011, 97, 99
EnglumNetherlands3rd - 5th c. ADMigration Period1cattleradius2fragment, not usedPrummel 2008, 129-130, 147-149, fig. 8.15; 2011, 97-98; Prummel et al. 2014, 228
DorestadNetherlandsEarly Middle Age65Horse, CattleMetapodium, Radius, TibiaPrummel 1983, 259-260
Halberstadt, DomburgGermany12th cent.High Middle Age1horsemetatarsusPrilloff 2006,15612699-12700
KonstanzGermanyMiddle Age1cattleradius2Planck 1994, 301
KonstanzGermanyMiddle Age1cattlemetapodium1, 2Planck 1994, 301
Wirdum, Burg BeningaGermanyMiddle Age1horsemetapodium2, 8distal fragmentPeters 2002, 49, 52, fig. 43.1Ostfriesische Landschaft Aurich
Ivanovice na Hané 3Czech RepublicMiddle Bronze Age1cattleradiusproximal fragmentParma et al. 2011, fig. 7.3A14437
Ivanovice na Hané 7Czech RepublicLate Bronze AgeUrnfield1cattleradius8, 12fragmentedParma et al. 2011, fig. 7.1-2A40793
Ivanovice na Hané 7Czech RepublicLate Bronze AgeUrnfield1cattleradius8fragmentedParma et al. 2011, fig. 6.3A40793
MistrinCzech RepublicMiddle Bronze Age2cattleradiusParma et al. 2011, fig. 6.1-279101
Ivanovice na Hané 6Czech RepublicLate Bronze AgeUrnfield1horsemetatarsus1, 2, 5, 7Parma et al. 2011, fig. 5.3A37732
Ivanovice na Hané 7Czech RepublicLate Bronze AgeUrnfield2horsemetatarsus1, 2, 8, 12found as pair, one with two holes distalParma et al. 2011, fig. 5.1-2A42756, A 42757
SabatynivkaUkrainiaLate Bronze AgeSabatynivkaHorseMetatarsusPankovskiy, Abstracts WBRG Paris 2007
SabatynivkaUkrainiaLate Bronze AgeSabatynivkaCattleRadiusPankovskiy, Abstracts WBRG Paris 2007
Ostrówek, OpolePoland12th - 13th cent.Middle Age1horsemetapodium2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7Norska-Gulkowa 1983, fig. 17b1711/52
Ostrówek, OpolePoland13th cent.Late Middle Age1horsemetapodium2Norska-Gulkowa 1983, fig. 17a401/51
Ostrówek, OpolePoland12th - 13th cent.Middle Age1horseradius1, 2, 3, 6, 7Norska-Gulkowa 1983, fig. 16c1678/52
Ostrówek, OpolePoland11th - 12th cent.High Middle Age1horseradius1, 2Norska-Gulkowa 1983, fig. 16b875/62
Ostrówek, OpolePoland11th cent.High Middle Age1horsemetacarpus1, 2, 17, 18not used?Norska-Gulkowa 1983, fig. 16a2657/54
Ostrówek, OpolePoland11th cent.High Middle Age1horsemetapodium1, 2, 3, 6, 7Norska-Gulkowa 1983, fig. 15e297/68
Ostrówek, OpolePoland12th - 13th cent.Middle Age1cattlemetacarpus1, 2, 7Norska-Gulkowa 1983, fig. 15d; Rozwód 20071704/52
Ostrówek, OpolePoland11th - 12th cent.High Middle Age1horsemetapodium1Norska-Gulkowa 1983, fig. 15c310a/56
Ostrówek, OpolePoland10th - 14th cent.Middle Age1horsemetapodium1, 2Norska-Gulkowa 1983, fig. 15bA22
Trelleborg, ZealandDenmarkEarly - High Middle AgeViking8??Nørlund 1948, 135; Stenberger 1955, 1106
HindelopenNetherlandsno dateno date1??2, 4, 58, 9Nieuwenbourg-Bron 1996?, 11
HindelopenNetherlandsno dateno date1CattleMetapodium1Nieuwenbourg-Bron 1996?, 11
NetherlandsNetherlandsno dateno date1?Radius2, 5, 5, 8, 9Nieuwenbourg-Bron 1996?, 10
NetherlandsNetherlandsno dateno date1CattleMetapodium2, 3Nieuwenbourg-Bron 1996?, 10
ViborgDenmarkno dateno date1??carved with human faceNielsen 1968, 38
BajcSlovakia7th - 8th cent.Early Middle Age1horsemetapodium1, 5Miklikova 2005
BajcSlovakia8th - 9th cent.Early - High Middle Age4horsemetapodium1, 5Miklikova 2005
BajcSlovakia9th - 11th cent.High Middle Age1horsemetapodium1, 5Miklikova 2005
BajcSlovakiaMiddle AgeSlavic3horsemetapodium1, 5Miklikova 2005
WesterwijtwerdNetherlands600 BC - 1900 AD, no dateno date1CattleMetacarpus2, 3, 8, 9600 BC - 1900 ADMiedema 2002, fig. 159.21900/I 395
WesterwijtwerdNetherlandsno dateno date1HorseRadius2, 4, 5, 10figure inconsistant with description claiming only metapodiae were used; 600 BC - 1900 ADMiedema 2002, fig. 159.11962/II 32
WesteremdenNetherlandsno dateno date1HorseMetapodiumall surfaces polished, secondary use?; 600 BC - 1900 ADMiedema 2002, fig. 158.71921/I 19
ToornwerdNetherlandsno dateno date1CattleMetacarpus2600 BC - 1900 ADMiedema 2002, fig. 158.61946/V 69
WesterwijtwerdNetherlandsno dateno date1HorseMetapodium2, 4, 5, 8, 9600 BC - 1900 ADMiedema 2002, fig. 158.51900/I 392
WesterwijtwerdNetherlandsno dateno date1HorseMetapodium1, 2, 8, 9, 13transverse hole in the middle of skate; 600 BC - 1900 ADMiedema 2002, fig. 158.41900/VI 17
WesteremdenNetherlandsno dateno date1CattleMetacarpus2600 BC - 1900 ADMiedema 2002, fig. 158.31909/I 180
WesteremdenNetherlandsno dateno date1HorseMetacarpus600 BC - 1900 ADMiedema 2002, fig. 158.21921/I 18
WesterwijtwerdNetherlandsno dateno date1CattleMetacarpus2, 3, 10, 18not used; 600 BC - 1900 ADMiedema 2002, fig. 158.11900/I 392
West-FivelingoNetherlandsno dateno date6Horse, CattleMetapodium2, 3600 BC - 1900 ADMiedema 2002
West-FivelingoNetherlandsno dateno date6Horse, CattleMetapodium600 BC - 1900 ADMiedema 2002
Iffens, BeckmannsfeldGermanyno date1horsemetapodiumMeiners, pers. com. 23.2.2012Nieder-sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven
SkogarIceland1972Modern Time1CattleMetatarsus4, 5, 8, 9in use until 1972McGovern, e-mail 2.7.2003; Short, e-mail 28.2.2006; visit Skogar Museum 21.10.2017Exhibition Skogar Folkmuseum
SkogarIceland1972Modern Time1CattleMetacarpus4, 5, 8, 9in use until 1972McGovern, e-mail 2.7.2003; Short, e-mail 28.2.2006; visit Skogar Museum 21.10.2017Exhibition Skogar Folkmuseum
ReykjavikIceland19th cent.Modern Time2??McGovern, e-mail 2.7.2003Exhibition National Museum of Iceland
Kliestow bei Frankfurt (Oder)Germany2nd - 4th cent.Roman Iron AgeGermanic1artiodactylaTibiafragmentMarschalleck 1940, 302Haus 4
Kliestow bei Frankfurt (Oder)Germany2nd - 4th cent.Roman Iron AgeGermanic1??fragmentMarschalleck 1940, 302Haus 6
Crna BaraSerbia14th - 15th cent.Late Middle Age2horsemetapodiumManojlovic-Nikolic 2010, T. I.4, II.5
Crna BaraSerbia14th - 15th cent.Late Middle Age1cattlemetatarsus2Manojlovic-Nikolic 2010, T. I.2
BotraSerbia8th - 9th cent.Early to High Middle Age1horsemetapodium2,8Manojlovic-Nikolic 2010, T. I.1
CrvenkaSerbia10th - 12th cent.High Middle Age1cattlemetatarsusManojlovic-Nikolic 1997, T. I.4; 2010, T. III.8Museum of Vrsac
CrvenkaSerbia10th - 12th cent.High Middle Age1cattlemetacarpuschild skate?, burnisher?Manojlovic-Nikolic 1997, T. I.3; 2010, T. II.7Museum of Vrsac
CrvenkaSerbia10th - 12th cent.High Middle Age1cattlemetatarsusManojlovic-Nikolic 1997, T. I.2; 2010, T. II.6Museum of Vrsac
SapajaSerbia14th - 15th cent.Late Middle Age1horsemetapodium1, 2Manojlovic-Nikolic 1997, T. I.1; 2010, T. I.3Museum of Vrsac
York, The BedernGreat Britain13th cent.Late Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian, English1CattleRadiusMacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20558081 / sf788
York, The Bedern FoundryGreat Britain12th - 13th cent.Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian, English1HorseMetatarsus18MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20517981 / sf1742
York, PiccadillyGreat Britain10th - 12th cent.High Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1CattleMetacarpus1, 2very short (153 mm)MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 2049, fig. 9437932 / sf325
York, PiccadillyGreat Britain10th cent.High Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseMetacarpus ?1, 2, 5, 7, 10found with hazel wood pegMacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20497930 / sf697
York, PiccadillyGreat Britain10th - 12th cent.High Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseMetatarsus1, 2MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20497931 / sf324
York, CoppergateGreat Britain9th - 16th cent.Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian, English1CattleMetatarsus2, 7, 10, 17, 18MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20487901 / sf49
York, CoppergateGreat Britain13th cent.Late Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian, English1HorseMetacarpus1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 10MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 2024, fig. 943, 944e7154 / sf908
York, CoppergateGreat Britain13th cent.Late Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian, English1CattleMetatarsus1MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20247155 / sf1294
York, CoppergateGreat Britain13th cent.Late Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian, English1HorseMetatarsus1, 2, 8, 10, 17MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20247156 / sf3404
York, CoppergateGreat Britain13th - 14th cent.Late Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian, English1HorseMetatarsus10, 17MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20247157 / sf1074
York, CoppergateGreat Britain9th - 16th cent.Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian, English1CattleMetatarsus6, 7, 10MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20247159 / sf2378
York, CoppergateGreat Britain9th - 16th cent.Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian, English1HorseMetatarsus10, 18MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20247160 / sf2694
York, CoppergateGreat Britain9th - 16th cent.Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian, English1HorseMetacarpus1MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20247161 / sf12264
York, CoppergateGreat Britain16th cent.Early Modern TimeEnglish1HorseMetatarsus1MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20247158 / sf2601
York, CoppergateGreat Britainca. 975Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseMetacarpus7, 18MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 2023, fig. 943, 945b7136 / sf7893
York, CoppergateGreat Britain10th - 11th cent.High Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1CattleTibia10immature individualMacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 2023, fig. 9437139 / sf1936
York, CoppergateGreat Britainca. 930 - 975Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseMetatarsus1, 2, 6, 7, 17MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 2023, fig. 942, 944c-d7131 / sf10629
York, CoppergateGreat Britain9th - 10th cent.Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseMetatarsus2, 13oblique hole in distal endMacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 2023, fig. 9427125 / sf14001
York, CoppergateGreat Britainca. 930 - 975Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseMetatarsus17MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 2023, fig. 9427126 / sf7722
York, CoppergateGreat Britain9th - 10th cent.Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1CattleRadius2, 8, 9MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237123 / sf13148
York, CoppergateGreat Britain9th - 10th cent.Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseMetacarpus2MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237124 / sf13395
York, CoppergateGreat Britainca. 930 - 975Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1CattleRadius2MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237127 / sf7866
York, CoppergateGreat Britainca. 930 - 975Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1CattleMetatarsus1MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237128 / sf7867
York, CoppergateGreat Britainca. 930 - 975Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseMetatarsus1, 2, 10,MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237129 / sf7906
York, CoppergateGreat Britainca. 930 - 975Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1CattleMetacarpus2, 3MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237130 / sf9219
York, CoppergateGreat Britainca. 930 - 975Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1CattleMetacarpus2, 3MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237132 / sf14109
York, CoppergateGreat Britainca. 975Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseMetacarpus10MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237133 / sf7310
York, CoppergateGreat Britainca. 975Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseMetacarpus1, 2, 6, 7, 10, 18MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237134 / sf7343
York, CoppergateGreat Britainca. 975Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseMetacarpus1, 2, 6, 7, 10MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237135 / sf7360
York, CoppergateGreat Britainca. 975Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1CattleMetatarsus2, 5, 7, 18MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237137 / sf11723
York, CoppergateGreat Britain10th - 11th cent.High Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1CattleMetatarsus2, 4, 18MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237138 / sf432
York, CoppergateGreat Britain10th - 11th cent.High Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1CattleMetatarsus1, 2MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237140 / sf2174
York, CoppergateGreat Britain10th - 11th cent.High Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseRadius3, 6, 7MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237141 / sf4251
York, CoppergateGreat Britain10th - 11th cent.High Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1??MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237142 / sf5813
York, CoppergateGreat Britain10th - 11th cent.High Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseMetacarpus1, 2, 10MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237143 / sf6456
York, CoppergateGreat Britain10th - 11th cent.High Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseMetatarsus1, 2MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237144 / sf6528
York, CoppergateGreat Britain10th - 11th cent.High Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1??MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237145 / sf6745
York, CoppergateGreat Britain10th - 11th cent.High Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1CattleMetatarsusMacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237146 / sf9864
York, CoppergateGreat Britain10th - 11th cent.High Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseMetatarsus1, 10MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237147 / sf10993
York, CoppergateGreat Britain10th - 11th cent.High Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1CattleRadius2MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237148 / sf12720
York, CoppergateGreat Britain11th cent.High Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseMetacarpus1MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237149 / sf15557
York, CoppergateGreat Britain11th cent.High Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1CattleMetacarpus10MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237150 / sf16042
York, CoppergateGreat Britain11th - 12th cent.High Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1CattleMetacarpus18MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237151 / sf1360
York, CoppergateGreat Britain11th - 12th cent.High Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseMetatarsus1, 2, 6, 7, 10MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237152 / sf4079
York, CoppergateGreat Britain13th cent.Late Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian, English1HorseMetatarsusMacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20237153 / sf3282
York, CoppergateGreat Britain9th - 10th cent.Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseMetatarsus1, 2, 6, 7, 10, 17fragment of wooden peg (willow?) in axial holeMacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 2022-2023, fig. 942, 944a-b, 945a7122 / sf12208
York, CoppergateGreat Britain9th - 10th cent.Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1HorseMetacarpus1, 2, 6, 7, 10MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20227120 / sf8843
York, CoppergateGreat Britain9th - 10th cent.Early Middle AgeAnglo- Scandinavian1??MacGregor et al. 1999, 1984-1989, 20227121 / sf10934
BedfordGreat Britain8th cent.Early Middle Age1??exact no. of specimen not givenMacGregor 1985, 144
OxfordGreat Britain9th cent.Early Middle Age1??exact no. of specimen not givenMacGregor 1985, 144
ReigateGreat BritainEarly Middle AgeSaxo-Norman1Red DeerMetatarsusMacGregor 1985, 144
AbingdonGreat Britainno dateno date1??MacGregor 1985, 144
LondonGreat Britainno dateno date7??MacGregor 1985, 144
Aberdeen, ScotlandGreat Britainno dateno date1HorseMetapodium2, 3MacGregor 1985, 144
DublinIreland11th - 12th cent.High Middle Age1??1, 10MacGregor 1976, 74National Museum of Ireland149
DublinIreland12th cent.High Middle Age1??1MacGregor 1976, 74National Museum of Ireland48
DublinIreland13th cent.Late Middle Age1??1, 8MacGregor 1976, 74National Museum of Ireland147
Thetford, EnglandGreat BritainEarly Middle AgeSaxo-Norman1HorseTibiaMacGregor 1976, 72
BrabantBelgium12th cent.High Middle Age3??MacGregor 1976, 64
LondonGreat Britain8th - 14th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetapodium2, 6, 7, 11, 12MacGregor 1976, 60, fig. 1D; 1985, 143, fig. 76bMuseum of London
EnglandGreat Britain8th - 14th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetapodium1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9MacGregor 1976, 60, fig. 1A; 1985, 143, fig. 76aMuseum of London
London, Tokenhouse YardGreat BritainRoman Iron Age?1HorseMetapodium1, 2, 8, 15found with Samian PotteryMacGregor 1976, 59-60, fig. 1CBritish Museum London
YorkGreat Britain8th - 14th cent.Middle Age1CattleMetacarpus1, 2, 13sagittal gap between condyli used for bindingMacGregor 1976, 59-60, fig. 1BSheffield City Museum
York, Suffolk, Ipswich, Thetford, Nothampton, WaltGreat Britain8th - 14th cent.Middle Age122HorseMetapodium1, 2, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 17, 18various combinations of modifications specified in referenceMacGregor 1976, 58-59, 65, 71-74, tab. 1, pl. IVBritish Museum London, Museum of London, National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland Edinborough, Pitt-Rvers-Museum Oxford, Scarborough Museum, Sheffield City Museum, Yorkshire Museum York and other collections
York, Suffolk, Ipswich, Thetford, Nothampton, WaltGreat Britain8th - 14th cent.Middle Age29CattleMetapodium1, 2, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 17, 18various combinations of modifications specified in referenceMacGregor 1976, 58-59, 65, 71-74, tab. 1, pl. IVBritish Museum London, Museum of London, National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland Edinborough, Pitt-Rvers-Museum Oxford, Scarborough Museum, Sheffield City Museum, Yorkshire Museum York and other collections
York, Suffolk, Ipswich, Thetford, Nothampton, WaltGreat Britain8th - 14th cent.Middle Age10Horse, CattleRadius1, 2, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 17, 18various combinations of modifications specified in referenceMacGregor 1976, 58-59, 65, 71-74, tab. 1, pl. IVBritish Museum London, Museum of London, National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland Edinborough, Pitt-Rvers-Museum Oxford, Scarborough Museum, Sheffield City Museum, Yorkshire Museum York and other collections
PärnuEstonia13th - 15th cent.Late Middle Age1CattleMetapodiumLuik, e-mail 8.3.2004
LihulaEstonia13th - 14th cent.Late Middle Age1HorseMetacarpus2, 3, 7, 8?Luik, e-mail 2.-4.3.2004AM 942
LihulaEstonia13th - 14th cent.Late Middle Age1CattleRadius2, 3Luik, e-mail 2.-4.3.2004AM 942
Iru Hill-fortEstoniauntil 11th cent.Middle Age2HorseMetapodiumLuik, e-mail 2.3.2004
Löhavere Hill-fortEstonia12th - 13th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetapodiumunfinishedLuik, e-mail 2-4.3.2004
PadaEstonia8th - 10th cent.Early Middle Age5HorseMetapodium14 fragments; 5-7 specimenLuik & Maldre 2005, 264
VihterpaluEstonia19th cent.Modern Time1HorseRadius2, 6, 7Luik 2000, fig. 14HMK 624
OsmussaarEstonia19th cent.Modern Time1CattleMetatarsus2Luik 2000, fig. 13ERM A 493: 38
OsmussaarEstonia19th cent.Modern Time1HorseMetapodium2Luik 2000, fig. 12ERM A 493: 78A
OsmussaarEstonia19th cent.Modern Time1HorseMetapodium2, 8, 13transverse hole in the middle of skateLuik 2000, fig. 12ERM A 493: 78B
Suur-PakriEstonia19th cent.Modern Time2HorseMetapodium8, 9, 17Luik 2000, fig. 11ERM A 333:1,2
PühalepaEstonia19th cent.Modern Time2HorseMetapodium2, 19Luik 2000, fig. 10ERM A 492:59
ViljandiEstonia13th - 14th cent.Late Middle Age1HorseRadius4Luik 2000, fig. 6.2VM 10258: 408
ViljandiEstonia13th - 14th cent.Late Middle Age1HorseRadius3, 7Luik 2000, fig. 6.1VM 10258: 485
LihulaEstonia13th - 14th cent.Late Middle Age1CattleMetacarpus2Luik 2000, fig. 5AI 808: 794
OtepääEstonia7th - 14th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetacarpus1, 5, 9Luik 2000, fig. 4.1; Maldre 2001, 21, fig. 7bAI 4036: I 954
Iru Hill-fortEstoniauntil 11th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetacarpus ?6, 8Luik 2000, fig. 3.5AI 3428: 750
KuusaluEstonia9th - 13th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus6, 8Luik 2000, fig. 3.4AI 5043: 245
LehmjaEstoniano dateno date1HorseMetatarsus91000 BC - 1100 ADLuik 2000, fig. 3.3AI 5310: 228
LehmjaEstoniano dateno date1HorseMetacarpus2, 81000 BC - 1100 ADLuik 2000, fig. 3.2AI 5310: III 141
PadaEstonia8th - 10th cent.Early Middle Age1HorseMetacarpus9Luik 2000, fig. 3.1; Luik & Maldre 2005, 264, fig. 2AI 5082: 851
PadaEstonia8th - 10th cent.Early Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus8Luik 2000, fig. 2; Luik & Maldre 2005, 264, fig. 2AI 5082: 261
PolandPolandEarly Middle Age???Lipinska & Zeylandowa 1971, 50; Leciejewicz et al. 1972
OosterendNetherlandsno dateno date1HorseMetatarsus2, 11Lindenschmit 1864, pl.1.3-4a; Anonymus 1898b, 177; Herman 1902, 224, fig. 131Rijksmuseum van Oudheden Leiden
NorddeutschlandGermanyno dateno date1HorseMetapodium2Lindenschmit 1864, pl. 1.1; Herman 1902, 224, fig. 130Museum Hannover
Bremen, Martinistrasse, Fst. 4-AltstadtGermany13th cent.Late Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus2, 8, 10Lehnert 1997, 60-61, V, pl. 3.4, 21.1 Rech 2004, 391-392, fig. 397.2Focke-Museum BremenFM 10039
Groß StrömkendorfGermany7th cent.Early Middle AgeSlavic1horsemetatarsus2blankLehmkuhl 1992, 177; Wietrzichowski 1992a, 156, 158, 162, Abb. 4k; 1992b, 49
TielNetherlands9th - 11th cent.Early Middle Age3HorseMetapodium2Lauwerier & Villari 1995, 179
TielNetherlands9th - 11th cent.Early Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus2, 4, 5Lauwerier & Villari 1995, 178-179, fig. 3
TielNetherlands11th cent.High Middle Age1CattleCostaLauwerier & Villari 1995, 178-179, fig. 3
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age1CattleRadius2, 12Lauwerier & van Heeringen 1998, fig. 3C
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age1HorseRadius2, 7, 11Lauwerier & van Heeringen 1998, fig. 3B
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age1HorseRadius2, 3, 6, 7Lauwerier & van Heeringen 1998, fig. 3A
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age1CattleMetatarsus2, 13oblique hole in proximal end, ¿ 7 mmLauwerier & van Heeringen 1998, fig. 2C
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age1CattleMetatarsus2Lauwerier & van Heeringen 1998, fig. 2B
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age1CattleMetacarpus2Lauwerier & van Heeringen 1998, fig. 2A
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age12HorseMetapodium2, 6, 7, 13oblique hole in proximal endLauwerier & van Heeringen 1998, fig. 1A
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age4HorseMetapodium1, 2, 6, 7Lauwerier & van Heeringen 1998
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age7HorseMetapodium2, 6, 7Lauwerier & van Heeringen 1998
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age3HorseRadius2, 3, 6, 7Lauwerier & van Heeringen 1998
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age2CattleMetatarsus2Lauwerier & van Heeringen 1998
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age1CattleRadius2, 12Lauwerier & van Heeringen 1998
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age1??Lauwerier & van Heeringen 1998
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus4, 5, 6, 7, 8Lauwerier & van Heeringen 1995, 85-86, fig. 9F; 1998, fig. 1F561
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age1HorseMetacarpus2, 6, 7, 11Lauwerier & van Heeringen 1995, 85-86, fig. 9E; 1998, fig. 1E233
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus2, 6, 7, 10, 11,Lauwerier & van Heeringen 1995, 85-86, fig. 9D; 1998, fig. 1D104
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age1HorseMetacarpus1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9Lauwerier & van Heeringen 1995, 85-86, fig. 9C; 1998, fig. 1C86
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus12Lauwerier & van Heeringen 1995, 85-86, fig. 9B; 1998, fig. 1B413
Oost-SouburgNetherlands900 - 975Early Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus1, 2, 6, 7, 13oblique hole in proximal endLauwerier & van Heeringen 1995, 85-86, fig. 9A; 1998, fig. 1A565
Gerasdorf am SteinfeldAustria1st cent ADRoman Iron AgeRoman1cattleradiusKunst, pers. com. 9.3.2005, 9.7.2009
East PolandPolandca. 1880Modern Time2CattleCosta13two transverse holes through Corpus costaekunst & antiek Revue 1 / 1985, 13
Baumgarten an der MarchAustriaEarly Middle Age1horsemetacarpus18semi-finishedKunst 2009, 201Objekt 13
Baumgarten an der MarchAustriaEarly Middle Age1horsemetacarpusfragment, cranial surface worn down till medullar cavityKunst 2009, 199-201Objekt 67
Baumgarten an der MarchAustriaEarly Middle Age2horsemetatarsus2Kunst 2009, 198-201, Abb. 1Objekt 13
ZwingendorfAustria4th cent.Roman Iron Age1horsemetacarpus17, 18not used, interpretation not certainKunst 2002, 264-269, 280, pl. 4aZW 10/96
ZwingendorfAustria4th cent.Roman Iron Age1horsemetacarpus5, 7, 18proximal fragmentKunst 2002, 264-269, 279, pl. 3dZW 95/96
ZwingendorfAustria4th cent.Roman Iron Age1horsemetacarpus2, 6Kunst 2002, 264-269, 279, pl. 3a-cZW 252
ZwingendorfAustria4th cent.Roman Iron Age1horsemetatarsus1, 2, 17, 18, 19Kunst 2002, 263-269, 278, pl. 2b-cZW 151/96
Bremen, 218 Altstadt, Langenstr. 31-35Germany9th - 10th cent.High Middle Age1CattleMetacarpus4, 5, 18heavily worn, medullar cavity exposedKüchelmann 2006Landes- archäologie Bremen287
Bremen, 218 Altstadt, Langenstr. 31-35Germany11th - 12th cent.High Middle Age1HorseMetacarpusfragmentKüchelmann 2006Landes- archäologie Bremen843
Jever, St. AnnenstraßeGermany12th - 13th. cent.High to Late Middle Age1cattleradius7fragment, worn down til medullar cavityKüchelmann 2012, 15, fig. 5dNds. Landesamt f. Denkmalpflege, Stützpunkt Oldenburg190
MiculciceCzech Republicno dateno date1?TibiaKratochvil & Sterba 1970, 452
MiculciceCzech Republicno dateno date155?Metapodium, RadiusKratochvil & Sterba 1970
OosterbeintumNetherlands600 BC - 1500 ADno date1horseradius1, 8, 9fragment, worn down til medullary cavityKramer & Prummel 2000, 108-11028bis-273
OosterbeintumNetherlands600 BC - 1500 ADno date1horsemetacarpus2, 3, 8, 9Kramer & Prummel 2000, 108-10928bis-16
OosterbeintumNetherlands600 BC - 1500 ADno date1horsemetacarpus2, 8, 13unfinished 2nd hole above distal holeKramer & Prummel 2000, 108-10928bis-97
GnieznoPoland7th - 9th cent.Early Middle AgeSlavic???Kostrzewski 1949, 289, 350-351
IgersheimGermany6th - 8th cent.Early Middle AgeMerovingian1CattleMetatarsusplantar side = gliding surfaceKokabi et al. 1994, 91, fig. 10
Rings, Hejnum, GotlandSweden18, 9Klindt-Jensen 1955, 857; Stenberger 1955, 1105
Vallhagar, Gotland • building 6SwedenMigration Period1HorseRadius4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9Klindt-Jensen 1955, 857; Stenberger 1955, 1080, 1105, 1107, fig. 458.12, 466
Sorte Muld, BornholmDenmark4th - 5th cent.Migration Period1??fragmentKlindt-Jensen 1951, 20; 1955, 858; 1957, 140-141; Stenberger 1955, 1106
Olsborg, Plöner SeeGermany10th - 12th cent.High Middle Age1cattlemetapodiumKleingärtner 2007, 101, fig. 3
Kadaň (Kaaden)Czech RepublicMiddle Age1Kinzer 1928, 72
Krnov (Jägerndorf)Czech RepublicMiddle Age1Kinzer 1926, 39
Wroclaw, Lewobrzezny, Nowy TargPoland12th - 13th cent.Middle Age1horseradius2,3Kazmierczyk 1970, 512; Konczewska 2011, 309exhibition Archaeological Museum Wroclaw 9/200923
Turku, Åbo AkademieFinland14th - 15th cent.Late Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus2, 13, 17, 19oblique hole through center of distal end, distal two small vertical holesKatajisto 2002, 15-16, fig. 5Turku Provincial Museum21816:LU 68
Turku, Åbo AkademieFinland15th cent.Late Middle Age1CattleRadiusKatajisto 2002, 14, 16Turku Provincial Museum21816:LU 147
TurkuFinland16th cent. or olderLate Middle Age1CattleRadius3, 10Katajisto 2002, 13, 16, 25, fig. 8Exhibition Aboa Vetus Museum Turku 2/2004KM 95032: 10963 (LU1668)
TurkuFinland15th cent. or olderLate Middle Age1CattleMetatarsus2, 18immature individual, not used, determination as skate not certainKatajisto 2002, 13, 16, 24, fig. 6Aboa Vetus Museum Turku 2/2004KM 95032: 10915 (LU 1203a)
TurkuFinlandbefore 1743Modern Time1HorseMetatarsus2, 13, 19oblique hole through center of distal endKatajisto 2002, 13, 16Aboa Vetus Museum Turku 2/2004KM 95032: 10922 (LU 1478)
Turku, Vanha SuurtoriFinland14th cent.Late Middle Age1CattleMetacarpusKatajisto 2002, 12, 16Turku Provincial Museum20315:1654
Turku, Vanha SuurtoriFinland14th cent.Late Middle Age1CattleMetacarpusKatajisto 2002, 11-12, 16, fig. 4Turku Provincial Museum20315:291
Turku, UudenmaankatuFinlandno dateno date1CattleMetatarsusKatajisto 2002, 11, 16Turku Provincial Museum18703:21
Turku, MätäjerviFinlandno dateno date1HorseMetacarpusKatajisto 2002, 10, 16Turku Provincial Museum18831:72
Turku, Vanha SuurtoriFinlandno dateno date1CattleMetacarpusKatajisto 2002, 9, 16, fig. 3Turku Provincial Museum18618:25
Turku, HovioikeudenkatuFinlandno dateno date1CattleMetatarsusKatajisto 2002, 8, 16Turku Provincial Museum17017:88
Turku, Itäinen rantakatuFinlandno dateno date1HorseMetatarsusKatajisto 2002, 8, 16Turku Provincial Museum17361:71e
Turku, CastleFinlandno dateno date1CattleRadiusKatajisto 2002, 8, 16Turku Provincial Museum18331:113
Turku, NunnakatuFinlandno date1HorseMetatarsus2, 19Katajisto 2002, 7, 16; Valonen 1958, 108Turku Provincial Museum14681:2000
Turku, BrahenkatuFinlandno dateno date1HorseMetatarsusKatajisto 2002, 7, 16Turku Provincial Museum17015:65
Turku, Itäinen rantakatuFinlandMiddle Age1CattleMetacarpus2Katajisto 2002, 6-7, 15, fig. 2; Valonen 1958, 108, fig. 14Turku Provincial Museum14681:740
Turku, Itäinen rantakatuFinlandMiddle Age1HorseRadius6, 7Katajisto 2002, 6, 15, fig. 2Turku Provincial Museum14681:740
Turku, Itäinen rantakatuFinlandMiddle Age1HorseMetatarsus6Katajisto 2002, 6, 15, fig. 2Turku Provincial Museum14681:740
Turku, CastleFinlandno dateno date1HorseMetatarsus2, 1914th cent. onwardsKatajisto 2002, 5-6, 15Turku Provincial Museum13275:11.117
Feste Grafendorf, StockerauAustria15th - early 16th cent.Late Middle Age - Early Modern Time1HorseMetatarsus2 diaphysis fragments, refittedJettmar 2013, 195, fig. 2; Jettmar & Kunst 2017, 480-482, Abb. 21-23; Kunst et al. 2018, 946-948, fig. 8Urgeschichte-museum Niederösterreich432/513
Olomouc (Olmütz)Czech Republic1horsemetacarpusJeitteles 1871
Wroclaw, Ostrow TumskiPolandMiddle Age1cattlemetatarsus2not usedJaworski 1990, 123, pl. Xeexhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/200913 c/77
Wroclaw, Ostrow TumskiPolandMiddle Age1horseradius2, 3Jaworski 1990, 123, pl. Xdexhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/200911 a/78
Wroclaw, Ostrow TumskiPolandMiddle Age1cattlemetapodium2, 7Jaworski 1990, 123, pl. Xcexhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/2009166 c/78
Wroclaw, Ostrow TumskiPolandMiddle Age1horseradius2, 3Jaworski 1990, 123, pl. Xbexhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/200911 a/78
Wroclaw, Ostrow TumskiPolandMiddle Age1horseradius2Jaworski 1990, 123, pl. Xaexhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/2009165 b/78
Wroclaw, Ostrow TumskiPolandMiddle Age1horseradius2fragmentJaworski 1990, 122, pl. IXfexhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/2009134 i/78
Wroclaw, Ostrow TumskiPolandMiddle Age1horsemetapodium2, 3Jaworski 1990, 122, pl. IXeexhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/2009162 c/78
Wroclaw, Ostrow TumskiPolandMiddle Age1horsemetatarsus1, 2Jaworski 1990, 122, pl. IXdexhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/2009257 c/78
Wroclaw, Ostrow TumskiPolandMiddle Age1horsemetatarsus1, 2Jaworski 1990, 122, pl. IXcexhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/2009160 a/74
Wroclaw, Ostrow TumskiPolandMiddle Age1horsemetatarsus1, 2, 8, 13oblique hole proximoplantarJaworski 1990, 122, pl. IXbexhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/200927 c/78
Wroclaw, Ostrow TumskiPolandMiddle Age1horsemetapodium1, 2, 3Jaworski 1990, 122, pl. IXaexhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/2009162 c/78
Wroclaw, Ostrow TumskiPoland11th cent.High Middle Age1Jaworski 1990, 84-85, tab. 17exhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/200927 c/77
Wroclaw, Ostrow TumskiPoland11th cent.High Middle Age1Jaworski 1990, 84-85, tab. 17exhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/2009241 b/75
Wroclaw, Ostrow TumskiPolandMiddle Age12horse, cattlemetapodium, radiusJaworski 1990exhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/2009
Wroclaw, ul. Mikolaja 26Poland14th cent.Late Middle Age1horseradius2, 3Jastrzebski 2004, 257-258, fig. 6a-b278/S M 26/2000
Wroclaw, ul. Wierzbowa 3/4Poland16th - 18th cent.Early Modern Time2Jastrzebski 2004, 257
Wroclaw, ul. Mikolaja 26Poland15th - 16th cent.Late Middle Age1horseradius2, 3Jastrzebski 2004, 256-259, fig. 7e-f277/S M 26/2000
SachsenGermany7th - 9th cent.Early Middle AgeSlavic???Jacob 1911, 220
DeventerNetherlandsno dateno date2CattleMetapodium8th - 19th cent.Ijzereff & Laarmann 1986, 413-414, fig. 8
DeventerNetherlandsno dateno date1HorseRadius8th - 19th cent.Ijzereff & Laarmann 1986, 413-414, fig. 8
WiskiautenRussia10th -11th cent.High Middle AgeViking1cattleMetatarsus2, 3Ibsen, e-mail 12.2.200728
Czech RepublikCzech Republicno dateno date93??Hruby 1957; 1965
JeverGermanyMiddle AgeFrisian1HorseMetatarsus8, 9Holz & Hammer 2000, 2
DobrudschaHungary19th cent.Modern Time5HorseMetapodium1, 2, 8, 9Herman 1902, pl. V.9-13
HungaryHungary19th cent.Modern Time2HorseMetapodium13hole not specifiedHerman 1902, pl. V.8
Csongád- MindszentHungary19th cent.Modern Time5HorseMetapodium1Herman 1902, pl. V.5-7
Kezdi-Szt.-LélekHungary19th cent.Modern Time2HorseMetapodiumHerman 1902, pl. V.2-3
MälarseeSwedenno dateno date300??Herman 1902, 226
DobrudschaHungary19th cent.Modern Time1HorseMetapodium2, 4, 5Herman 1902, 225, fig. 133
St. Peter of ArchesGreat Britainno dateno date1HorseMetapodium1, 8Herman 1902, 225, fig. 132; Munro 1897, 296
LondonGreat Britainno dateno date2??Herman 1902, 224-225; Munro 1897
Spandau, StresowGermanyno dateno date1HorseMetacarpusclaimed to be Bronze Age, dating doubtfulHerman 1902, 223; Anonymus 1898aMärkisches Museum BerlinMM.B.II.11805
AalsumNetherlandsMiddle Age ?1HorseMetacarpusclaimed to be Neolithic, dating wrongHerman 1902, 223-224, fig. 129
GrimmersumGermanyMiddle Age?1CattleMetacarpusclaimed to be Neolithic, dating wrongHerman 1902, 223, fig. 128
near BerlinGermanyno dateno date1HorseRadiussledge runner?Herman 1902, 223, fig. 127
VerebélyHungaryBronze Age?2HorseMetapodiumdating doubtful!Herman 1902, 222, pl. V.4
Schleswig, SchildGermany11th - 14th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus2, 4Heinrich 1995, 151-153; Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 41.10
Schleswig, SchildGermany11th - 14th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus1, 2Heinrich 1995, 151-153; Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 41.9
Schleswig, SchildGermany11th - 14th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus1, 2unfinishedHeinrich 1995, 151-153; Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 41.8
Schleswig, SchildGermany11th - 14th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus4Heinrich 1995, 151-153; Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 41.6
Schleswig, SchildGermany11th - 14th cent.Middle Age1CattleMetatarsus10, 17Heinrich 1995, 151-153; Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 41.5
Schleswig, SchildGermany11th - 14th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus10Heinrich 1995, 151-153; Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 41.4
Schleswig, SchildGermany11th - 14th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus10Heinrich 1995, 151-153; Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 41.3
Schleswig, SchildGermany11th - 14th cent.Middle Age1HorseRadiusHeinrich 1995, 151-153; Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60
Schleswig, SchildGermany11th - 14th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetacarpus1, 2Heinrich 1995, 151-153, fig. 13.3; Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60
Schleswig, SchildGermany11th - 14th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus2, 4, 7, 8Heinrich 1995, 151-153, fig. 13.2; Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 41.7
Schleswig, SchildGermany11th - 14th cent.Middle Age1HorseRadius2, 4, 5Heinrich 1995, 151-153, fig. 13.1; Ulbricht 1984, 39, 60, pl. 41.11
Schleswig, SchildGermany11th - 14th cent.Middle Age5HorseMetatarsusproximal fragmentsHeinrich 1995, 151-153
Feddersen WierdeGermany1st cent. BC - 4th cent. ADRoman Iron AgeGermanic1cattlemetatarsus2, 3Haarnagel 1979, 341, pl. 56.3; Reichstein 1991a 304, 307; 1991b, pl. 59.1
Feddersen WierdeGermanyEarly Middle AgeGermanic1horsemetacarpus2, 3, 10Haarnagel 1979, 341, pl. 56.1; Reichstein 1991a, 307
Böhl-IggelheimGermany8.-9th cent.Early - High Middle Ages1horsemetacarpus1, 2, 6, 7worn down til medullar cavityHaack pers. com. 2.12.2013Landes-archäologie Rheinland-Pfalz, Außenstelle Speyer119/1
Böhl-IggelheimGermany8.-9th cent.Early - High Middle Ages1horsemetacarpus1, 2, 7Haack pers. com. 2.12.2013Landes-archäologie Rheinland-Pfalz, Außenstelle Speyer119/2
Böhl-IggelheimGermany8.-9th cent.Early - High Middle Ages1horsemetacarpus1, 2, 6, 7Haack pers. com. 2.12.2013Landes-archäologie Rheinland-Pfalz, Außenstelle Speyer20/8
Konstanz, WessenbergstraßeGermany1cattleGummel 1923, 19; von Trölsch 1902, 101, 104, 163
DenmarkDenmarkMiddle Age1horsemetacarpus2Grütter, pers. com. 16.1.1995Bernisches Historisches Museum6634
Bernshausen, Burg, Fst. 3GermanyEarly Middle Age1horseradiusGrote 2003, pl. 70.7
Bernshausen, Dorf, Fst. 25Germany12th - 16th cent.Late Middle Age - Early Modern Time1horseradius2, 7Grote 2003, 199, pl. 79.3
Bernshausen, Motte, Fst. 1Germany1300 - 1350Late Middle Age1horseradius7Grote 2003, 110, pl. 40.12
Bernshausen, Motte, Fst. 1Germanyca. 1300Late Middle Age1horseradius7Grote 2003, 107, pl. 40.13
Harste, Kr. GöttingenGermany10th-11th cent.High Middle Age1horseradius2, 3Grote 1991, 179. Tafel 8.1, 9.1
Mautern, Vicus OstAustria100–140 ADRoman Iron AgeRoman1cattleradius4Groh & Sedlmayer 2006, 909; Kunst 2006, 725826/55, Parz. 800, PQ 94
Emden, RosenstraßeGermany10th cent.High Middle Age1horseradiusfragmentGrimm 2010, 135-137, 207, 227, pl. VIII, cat. no. 69Nieder- sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven°ER 13/6
Emden, SchulstraßeGermany9th - 10th cent.High Middle Age1horseradius1, 4fragmentGrimm 2010, 135-137, 207, 227, pl. VIII, cat. no. 67Nieder- sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven°EII R 3/2-256
Emden, RosenstraßeGermany12th cent.High Middle Age1cattlemetacarpus1, 4, 8fragmentGrimm 2010, 135-137, 207, 227, pl. VIII, cat. no. 66Nieder- sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven°EN 12/5
Emden, SchulstraßeGermany13th cent.Late Middle Age1cattlemetatarsus8fragmentGrimm 2010, 135-137, 206, 227, pl. VIII, cat. no. 65Nieder- sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven°EII K 2/2-185
Emden, SchulstraßeGermany13th cent.Late Middle Age1horsemetacarpus2, 8, 10Grimm 2010, 135-137, 206, 227, pl. VIII, cat. no. 63Nieder- sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven°EII H 50/14-164
Emden, SchulstraßeGermany13th cent.Late Middle Age1horsemetacarpus4, 10Grimm 2010, 135-137, 206, 226, pl. VII, cat. no. 62Nieder- sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven
Emden, PelzerstraßeGermany10 - 11th cent.High Middle Age1horsemetacarpus1, 8Grimm 2010, 135-137, 206, 226, pl. VII, cat. no. 61Nieder- sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung WilhelmshavenE59 J 3.0/5.0
Emden, SchulstraßeGermany11th cent.High Middle Age1cattlemetacarpus2, 13distal end drilled hole (Ø 8.4 mm) dorsal-volarGrimm 2010, 135-137, 205, 226, pl. VII, cat. no. 60Nieder- sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven
Emden, RosenstraßeGermany11th cent.High Middle Age1horsemetacarpus2Grimm 2010, 135-137, 205, 226, pl. VII, cat. no. 59Nieder- sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven
Emden, Große KircheGermanyMiddle Age1horsemetatarsus2Grimm 2010, 135-137, 205, 226, pl. VII, cat. no. 58Niedersächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven
Emden, RosenstraßeGermany10th cent.High Middle Age1CattleMetacarpus2, 3, 8, 10, 133 drilled holes in the proximal articulation surfaceGrimm 2010, 135-137, 205, 226, pl. VII, cat. no. 57Nieder- sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven
Emden, KirchstraßeGermany13th cent.Late Middle Age1CattleMetatarsus2, 8Grimm 2010, 135-137, 205, 226, pl. VII, cat. no. 56Ostfriesische Landschaft AurichEMDK 1629
Emden, RosenstraßeGermany9th-10th cent.High Middle Age1lost findGrimm 2010, 135, fig. 5-42
Emden, SchulstraßeGermany10th-11th cent.High Middle Age1lost findGrimm 2010, 135, fig. 5-42
OsloNorwayMiddle Age402??Grieg 1933, 265; Herteig 1969, 198; Stenberger 2955, 1106
BergenNorwayMiddle Age4??Grieg 1933, 265; Herteig 1969, 198; Stenberger 2955, 1106
TrondheimNorwayMiddle Age65??Grieg 1933, 264; Long 1975, 25; Stenberger 2955, 1106
NovakievkaUkrainiaLate Bronze AgeSabatynivka1HorseMetapodium11Gerskovic 1999, pl. 34.6
NovakievkaUkrainiaLate Bronze AgeSabatinovka1HorseMetapodiumGerskovic 1999, pl. 34.5
NovakievkaUkrainiaLate Bronze AgeSabatynivka1HorseMetapodium1, 2Gerskovic 1999, pl. 34.4
Zlatopol'UkrainiaLate Bronze AgeSabatynivka1HorseMetapodium1, 2, 8unfinished?Gerskovic 1999, pl. 10.1
Starigard / OldenburgGermany9th cent.High Middle Agehorse, cattlemetapodium, radius4, 5, 6, 7Gabriel 1991, 247
unbekanntGermanyno date4horse, cattleradius8Feldhaus 1965, 965, Abb. 630Museum für Völkerkunde Leipzig
Oldorf 16, NeuwarfenGermany12th - 13th cent.Middle Age1horsemetacarpus1, 2, 8exhibition NIhK 18.8.2010Nieder- sächsisches Institut für historische Küstenforschung Wilhelmshaven (NIhK)
Kasteel LentNetherlands1100-1300 ADHigh Middle Age1HorseRadius2, 4, 8fragmentEsser et al. 2016, 971, 973, Fig. 17.15dNld16.2301
AntwerpenBelgiumLate 10th cent. - 1225 ADHigh Middle Age1Red DeerMetacarpus2, 17Ervynck et al. 2013, 226-227; Ervynck 1998, 19, 49, 55, cat. no. 56A.VDW/O/B56
Antwerpen, BesaenhuisBelgiumLate 10th cent. - 1225 ADHigh Middle Age1Red DeerMetatarsus2Ervynck et al. 2013, 226-227; Ervynck 1998, 19, 49, 55, cat. no. 55A.VDW/O/B55; A.B.56.22 V.78
Gent, Sint-Veerleplein 11, GravensteenBelgium10th - 12th c. ADHigh Middle Age1Red DeerMetacarpus2, 4, 17Ervynck et al. 2013, 223, 226-227, 231, afb. 7, cat. no. 16GG-1-2-12
Antwerpen, BesaenhuisBelgiumLate 10th cent. - 1225 ADHigh Middle Age1HorseMetacarpus1, 2, 3Ervynck 1998, 19, 51, 55, cat. no. 59A.VDW/B/B59; A.B.55.22 V.89
Antwerpen, Sint-WalburgiskerkBelgiumLate 10th cent. - 1225 ADHigh Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus1, 2, 17Ervynck 1998, 19, 50, 55, cat. no. 58A.VDW/W/B58; ASA/VDW B2
Antwerpen, Sint-WalburgiskerkBelgiumLate 10th cent. - 1225 ADHigh Middle Age1HorseMetacarpus2, 3Ervynck 1998, 19, 50, 55, cat. no. 57A.VDW/W/B57; ASA/VDW B3
Antwerpen, Sint-WalburgiskerkBelgiumLate 10th cent. - 1225 ADHigh Middle Age1CattleRadiusErvynck 1998, 19, 48, 55, cat. no. 54A.VDW/W/B54; ASA/VDW B.1
AntwerpenBelgiumLate 10th cent. - 1225 ADHigh Middle Age1CattleRadiusErvynck 1998, 19, 48, 55, cat. no. 53A.VDW/O/B53; ASA/VDW B.18
Antwerpen, BesaenhuisBelgiumLate 10th cent. - 1225 ADHigh Middle Age1CattleMetatarsus2, 3Ervynck 1998, 19, 47, 55, cat. no. 52A.VDW/B/B52; A.B.55.22 V.76
Antwerpen, BesaenhuisBelgiumLate 10th cent. - 1225 ADHigh Middle Age1CattleMetatarsus2Ervynck 1998, 19, 47, 55, cat. no. 51A.VDW/B/B51; A.B.55.22 V.77
AntwerpenBelgiumLate 10th cent. - 1225 ADHigh Middle Age2HorseRadiusErvynck 1998, 19, 26, 55, tab. 1, cat. no. 86-87ASA/VDW B.11, 14
AntwerpenBelgiumLate 10th cent. - 1225 ADHigh Middle Age2HorseMetatarsusErvynck 1998, 19, 26, 55, tab. 1, cat. no. 84-85ASA/VDW B.25, 28
AntwerpenBelgiumLate 10th cent. - 1225 ADHigh Middle Age6HorseMetacarpusErvynck 1998, 19, 26, 55, tab. 1, cat. no. 78-83ASA/VDW B.12, 17, 22, 24, 26, 29; A.B. 55.22, B, zak M III
AntwerpenBelgiumLate 10th cent. - 1225 ADHigh Middle Age1CattleRadiusErvynck 1998, 19, 26, 55, tab. 1, cat. no. 77ASA/VDW B.13
AntwerpenBelgiumLate 10th cent. - 1225 ADHigh Middle Age3CattleMetatarsusErvynck 1998, 19, 26, 55, tab. 1, cat. no. 74-76ASA/VDW B.16, 20, 27; A.B. 56.22, B, K.P.M?, III, zak V; A.B.55, B, K.P. 6
AntwerpenBelgiumLate 10th cent. - 1225 ADHigh Middle Age7CattleMetacarpusErvynck 1998, 19, 26, 55, tab. 1, cat. no. 67-73ASA/VDW B.15, 19, 21, 23, 30-32
Åland, Kastelholms SlottFinlandEarly Modern Time2HorseMetapodiumElfwendahl 1991, 152565:2102; 565:2872
VlisseghemBelgium5th - 8th cent.Migration PeriodFrankish1??de Lo‘ 1939, 178
Schagen-WaldervaartNetherlands7th - 8th c. ADEarly Middle Age1horseradius13dorso-caudal hole in distal end; proximal fragmentClason & Prummel 1982, 76-77, fig. 2
Schagen-WaldervaartNetherlands7th - 8th c. ADEarly Middle Age1horseradiusClason & Prummel 1982, 76-77
Dorestad, HoogstraatNetherlandsEarly Middle Age1CattleMetacarpuspalmar side = gliding sideClason 1980, fig 169.2373.1.8
Dorestad, Hoogstraat INetherlandsEarly Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus2, 4, 5, 6, 7Clason 1980, fig 169.115771
Dorestad, HoogstraatNetherlandsEarly Middle Age1Horse or DonkeyMetatarsus3, 8, 9Clason 1980, 243-245, fig. 169.416251
Dorestad, HoogstraatNetherlandsEarly Middle Age1CattleMetacarpus2, 4, 5, 18not usedClason 1980, 243-245, fig. 169.3378.26
Dorestad, HoogstraatNetherlandsEarly Middle Age1Horse or DonkeyMetacarpus2, 3Clason 1980, 243-245361.5.2
LundSweden11th -12th cent.High Middle AgeScandinavian1Horsemetapodium1, 2, 8, 10Cinthio 1976, 384, fig. 335KM 66166:1044
LundSweden12th cent.High Middle AgeScandinavian1HorseRadius1, 2, 7, 8, 9Cinthio 1976, 383-385, fig. 337KM 66166:582
LundSweden11th - 12th cent.High Middle Age8horsemetapodiumCinthio 1976, 383-385, fig. 334
LundSweden11th - 12th cent.High Middle Age2CattleMetapodiumCinthio 1976, 383-385, fig. 334
LundSweden11th -12th cent.High Middle AgeScandinavian1HorseMetacarpus2, 10, 11Cinthio 1976, 383-384, fig. 335; Roesdahl 1992, 51, 233KM 66166:1444
LundSweden11th -12th cent.High Middle AgeScandinavian1Horsemetapdium1, 2, 8, 10Cinthio 1976, 383-384, fig. 335KM 66166:1625
LundSweden11th -12th cent.High Middle AgeScandinavian24horseradiusCinthio 1976, 383-384, fig. 334
LundSweden11th -12th cent.High Middle AgeScandinavian1cattleradiusCinthio 1976, 383-384
TörökbálintHungaryLate Bronze Age2HorseMetacarpus1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 133rd transversal holes through proximal half of the bone; vertical holes into 3rd transversal holesChoyke, e-mails 16.10. -1.11.2003; ; Choyke & Bartosiewicz 2005, 320; Choyke & Schibler 2007, 58-59, fig. 11
GyorHungary1200 - 1000 BCLate Bronze AgeTumulus Culture2?MetapodiumChoyke, e-mail 15.5.2004; Choyke & Bartosiewicz 2005, 320
AlbertfalvaHungaryca. 2500 BCEarly Bronze AgeBell Beaker1HorseRadius9Choyke et al. 2003, 183, 185; Choyke & Bartosiewicz 2005, 318, fig. 2-3
AlbertfalvaHungaryca. 2500 BCEarly Bronze AgeBell Beaker3HorseRadiusChoyke et al. 2003, 183, 185; Choyke & Bartosiewicz 2005, 318
Szazhalom- batta-FöldvarHungary1800 - 1500 BCMiddle Bronze AgeVatya1CattleRadiusChoyke et al. 2003, 183, 185, 187; Choyke & Bartosiewicz 2005, 318-319
Szazhalom- batta-FöldvarHungary1800 - 1500 BCMiddle Bronze AgeVatya1CattleRadius3Choyke et al. 2003, 183, 185, 187, fig. 15; Choyke & Bartosiewicz 2005, 318-319, fig. 5
Szazhalom- batta-FöldvarHungary1800 - 1500 BCMiddle Bronze AgeVatya1CattleRadiusChoyke et al. 2003, 183, 185, 187, fig. 15; Choyke & Bartosiewicz 2005, 318-319
Lébény-Kaszás- dombHungaryLate Bronze Age1??Choyke & Bartosiewicz 2005, 321
Lébény-Kaszás- domb, feature 145HungaryLate Bronze Age1HorseMetacarpusChoyke & Bartosiewicz 2005, 320-321
Lébény-Kaszás- domb, feature 100HungaryLate Bronze Age1HorseMetapodium13cross-shaped hole on palmar side, distal end palmar upsweptChoyke & Bartosiewicz 2005, 320exhibition Hanság Museum Mosonmag- yaróvár
Gyoma 133, pit 41HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian2HorseMetacarpus2, 3, 6, 18Choyke 1996, 307-311, 319, fig. 2
Gyoma 133, pit 45HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpus2Choyke 1996, 307-311, 318, fig. 1
Gyoma 133, pit 41HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian2HorseMetacarpusChoyke 1996, 307-311
Gyoma 133, pit 41HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian2HorseMetacarpus2Choyke 1996, 307-311
Gyoma 133, pit 45HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpus18Choyke 1996, 307-311
Gyoma 133, pit 46HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian2HorseMetacarpusChoyke 1996, 307-311
Gyoma 133, pit 40HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian2HorseMetacarpus2, 6, 7Choyke 1996, 307-310, 319, fig. 2
Gyoma 133HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetatarsus2Choyke 1996, 307-310, 317
Gyoma 133HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian2HorseMetacarpusChoyke 1996, 307-310, 316-317
Gyoma 133, B 13HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1CattleMetacarpus6, 7, 18Choyke 1996, 307-310, 316
Gyoma 133, C 3HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpus3, 4, 5, 6, 7Choyke 1996, 307-310, 316
Gyoma 133, D 6HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpus4, 5Choyke 1996, 307-310, 316
Gyoma 133HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian3HorseMetacarpus2Choyke 1996, 307-310, 315-316
Gyoma 133, A 10HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetatarsus2, 18Choyke 1996, 307-310, 315, 318, fig. 1
Gyoma 133, pit 319HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpus2, 6, 7Choyke 1996, 307-310, 315
Gyoma 133, pit 327HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpusChoyke 1996, 307-310, 315
Gyoma 133, pit 352HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpus2Choyke 1996, 307-310, 315
Gyoma 133, pit 379HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetapodiumChoyke 1996, 307-310, 315
Gyoma 133, pit 259HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetatarsusChoyke 1996, 307-310, 314, 318, fig. 1
Gyoma 133, pit 266HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpus18Choyke 1996, 307-310, 314, 318, fig. 1
Gyoma 133, pit 277HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1CattleMetatarsusChoyke 1996, 307-310, 314, 318, fig. 1
Gyoma 133, pit 214HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpusChoyke 1996, 307-310, 314
Gyoma 133, pit 296HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpusChoyke 1996, 307-310, 314
Gyoma 133, pit 166HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpusChoyke 1996, 307-310, 313, 319, fig. 2
Gyoma 133, pit 182HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpus2, 3, 18Choyke 1996, 307-310, 313, 319, fig. 2
Gyoma 133, pit 199HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1CattleMetatarsusChoyke 1996, 307-310, 313, 318, fig. 1
Gyoma 133, pit 202HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetatarsus18Choyke 1996, 307-310, 313, 318, fig. 1
Gyoma 133, pit 143HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpusChoyke 1996, 307-310, 313
Gyoma 133, pit 180HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpusChoyke 1996, 307-310, 313
Gyoma 133, pit 202HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpus2Choyke 1996, 307-310, 313
Gyoma 133, pit 51HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpus4, 5Choyke 1996, 307-310, 312, 319, fig. 2
Gyoma 133, pit 51HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpus2, 3, 5Choyke 1996, 307-310, 312, 319, fig. 2
Gyoma 133, pit 88HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpus7Choyke 1996, 307-310, 312, 319, fig. 2
Gyoma 133, pit 120HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpusChoyke 1996, 307-310, 312, 318, fig. 1
Gyoma 133, pit 48HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpus2, 3, 7Choyke 1996, 307-310, 312
Gyoma 133, pit 64HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpusChoyke 1996, 307-310, 312
Gyoma 133, pit 65HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpusChoyke 1996, 307-310, 312
Gyoma 133, pit 124HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpusChoyke 1996, 307-310, 312
Gyoma 133, pit 17HungaryRoman Iron AgeSarmatian1HorseMetacarpusChoyke 1996, 307-310
Wandignies-Hamage, Dpt. NordFrance8th - 9th c.Middle Ages1cattlemetacarpusChaoui-Derieux 2010, 67, fig. 7Direction de l'Archeologie préventive de la Communauté dAgglomération du Douaisis
Wroclaw, Ostrow Tumski, ul. Kapitulna 4Poland12th-13th c.Middle Age1horsemetapodium1, 2, 8fragmentBykowski et al. 2004, 139, fig. 14bexhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/2009
Wroclaw, Ostrow Tumski, ul. Kapitulna 4Poland12th-13th c.Middle Age1horsemetatarsus1, 2, 8, 13oblique hole proximoplantarBykowski et al. 2004, 139, fig. 14aexhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/2009
NetherlandsNetherlandsno dateno date1?Metapodium2, 4, 10, 11Broere 1988, 6Broere
Obertraubling, Kreis RegensburgGermanyEarly Middle Age3Breinl & Koch 1986, 70
Bremen, ArstenGermany13th cent.Late Middle Age1HorseMetacarpus4, 6Brandt 1993, 205-206, fig. 2c; Rech 2004, 392Focke-Museum BremenFM 10133
Bremen, ArstenGermany13th cent.Late Middle Age1HorseMetacarpus4, 6, 7Brandt 1993, 205-206, fig. 2b; Rech 2004, 392Focke-Museum BremenFM 10133
St. Helvigs, Fole, GotlandSweden14th cent.Late Middle Age4??Bohrn 1942, 68; Stenberger 1955, 1106
Tulln-MarktplatzAustria13th cent.High Middle Age1horsemetatarsus2Böhm 2015, 44-45, Abb. 5
Bremen, Bredenplatz, 231-AltstadtGermanyMiddle Age1horseMetacarpus4, 5Bishop 2011, 373; Halle pers. com. 9/2008Landes-archäologie BremenBf. 1
Bremen, Bredenplatz, 231-AltstadtGermanyMiddle Age1cattlemetatarsus4, 5Bishop 2011, 373; Halle pers. com 9/2008Landes-archäologie BremenBf. 1
Bremen, Bredenplatz, 231-AltstadtGermanyMiddle Age1cattleradius2, 4, 5, 8, 9drilling Ø 10-15 mmBishop 2011, 373-374, fig. 18; Küchelmann, in prep.Landes-archäologie Bremen3
Bremen, Bredenplatz, 231-AltstadtGermanyMiddle Age1horsemetapodium4, 5heavily wornBishop 2011, 373-374, fig. 18; Küchelmann, in prep.Landes-archäologie Bremen4; Bf. 83
Bremen, Bredenplatz, 231-AltstadtGermanyMiddle Age2Bishop 2011, 373Landes-archäologie Bremen
Bremen, Bredenplatz, 231-AltstadtGermany8th - 9th cent.Early Middle Age1cattlemetatarsus2Bishop 2011, 365, 373; Küchelmann, in prep.Landes-archäologie Bremen55 (1); Bf. 124
Bremen, Bredenplatz, 231-AltstadtGermany8th - 9th cent.Early Middle Age1horsemetatarsus5Bishop 2011, 365, 373; Küchelmann, in prep.Landes-archäologie Bremen54; Bf. 121
Bremen, Langenstr./Fangturm, 209 AltstadtGermany12th - 13th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetacarpus1, 4, 5, 6, 7Bischop, pers. com. 25.2.2004Landes- archäologie BremenBf. 6
Bremen, Langenstr./Fangturm, 209 AltstadtGermany12th - 13th cent.Middle Age1HorseMetapodium4, 6, 7cranial surface worn down till half of the medullar cavityBischop, pers. com. 25.2.2004Landes- archäologie BremenBf. 6
Borken, Burg BorkenwirtheGermany14th cent.Late Middle Age1??8, 10Bischop, pers. com. 1/2004Exhibition Hamalandmuseum Vreden
Bremen, 223 Altstadt, Langenstr. 10-12Germany12th cent.High Middle Age1HorseRadius4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9Cranial side worn down till half of medullar cavityBischop & Jager 2008, 195-196Landes- archäologie Bremen2
Bremen, 223 Altstadt, Langenstr. 10-12Germany12th cent.High Middle Age1CattleRadius2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9Cranial side worn down till half of medullar cavityBischop & Jager 2008, 195-196Landes- archäologie Bremen3
Bremen, 223 Altstadt, Langenstr. 10-12Germany12th cent.High Middle Age1HorseMetapodium4, 6Cranial side worn down till half of medullar cavityBischop & Jager 2008, 195-196Landes- archäologie Bremen4
Bremen, 223 Altstadt, Langenstr. 10-12Germany12th cent.High Middle Age1HorseMetapodium4, 6Cranial side worn down till half of medullar cavityBischop & Jager 2008, 195-196Landes- archäologie Bremen5
Bremen, 223 Altstadt, Langenstr. 10-12Germany12th cent.High Middle Age1HorseMetatarsus5, 6, 7Cranial side worn down till half of medullar cavityBischop & Jager 2008, 195-196Landes- archäologie Bremen6
Bremen, 223 Altstadt, Langenstr. 10-12Germany12th cent.High Middle Age1HorseMetacarpus1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7Bischop & Jager 2008, 195-196Landes- archäologie Bremen7a
Bremen, 223 Altstadt, Langenstr. 10-12Germany12th cent.High Middle Age1CattleMetacarpus2, 4, 5, 6, 7Bischop & Jager 2008, 195-196Landes- archäologie Bremen7b
Bremen, 223 Altstadt, Langenstr. 10-12Germany12th cent.High Middle Age1CattleMetacarpus4, 5Bischop & Jager 2008, 195-196Landes- archäologie Bremen7c
Bremen, 223 Altstadt, Langenstr. 10-12Germany12th cent.High Middle Age1CattleMetatarsus4, 5Bischop & Jager 2008, 195-196Landes- archäologie Bremen8a
Bremen, 223 Altstadt, Langenstr. 10-12Germany12th cent.High Middle Age1HorseMetapodium4, 5, 6, 7Bischop & Jager 2008, 195-196Landes- archäologie Bremen8b
Bremen, 223 Altstadt, Langenstr. 10-12Germany12th cent.High Middle Age1HorseMetapodium5, 6Bischop & Jager 2008, 195-196Landes- archäologie Bremen8c
Bremen, 223 Altstadt, Langenstr. 10-12Germany12th cent.High Middle Age1CattleRadius2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9Bischop & Jager 2008, 194-196, Abb. 13.3Landes- archäologie Bremen1
Bremen, Carl-Ronning-Straße, 227-AltstadtGermany9th - 10th cent.High Middle Age1Bischop 2008, 66-67, Abb. 4bLandesarchäologie Bremen
Köln, Flottenlager AltenburgGermany0-300 ADRoman Iron AgeRoman1wolfradius3, 4, 6, 7proxmal and distal end sawn offBerke 2004
Köln - HeumarktGermany1150-1400High to Late Middle Age1cattlemetapodiumdistal fragmentBerke 1997, 412-413, fig. 8.2
Köln - HeumarktGermany1150-1400High to Late Middle Age1horsemetapodiumdistal fragmentBerke 1997, 412-413, fig. 8.1
BlumenbergGermanyMiddle Age1horsemetatarsus22 fragmentsBerke 1992, fig. 3
BlumenbergGermanyMiddle Age1horsemetatarsus2, 18not usedBerke 1992, fig. 2
Urshult socken, SmålandSwedenno dateno date1horsemetapodium2, 19Berg 1943, 87, bild 16Nordiska Museet Stockholm71,244
Vätö socken, UpplandSweden1880no date1horsemetapodium2, 11, 12, 19Berg 1943, 87, bild 15
ÖlandSwedenno dateno date1horsemetapodium2, 5, 7, 8, 9Berg 1943, 87, bild 10Nordiska Museet Stockholm136,223
Lund, MårtenstorgetSwedenno dateno date1horsemetapodium2, 8Berg 1943, 87, bild 9Nordiska Museet Stockholm189,123
UppsalaSwedenno dateno date1horsemetapodium2, 19Berg 1943, 87, bild 8Nordiska Museet Stockholm8,727
By, DalarnaSwedenno dateno date1horsemetapodium2, 19Berg 1943, 87, bild 7Nordiska Museet Stockholm79,992
Berlin-SpandauGermany750 - 830Early Middle AgeSlavic1horsemetacarpus4, 5, 17Becker 1993, 96, 98, pl. 2, 3.1SF 105 BW 22/37
Berlin-SpandauGermany940 - 970Early Middle AgeSlavic1CattleRadiusBecker 1990, fig. 3f, cat.-no. 3BW15 IF16218
Berlin-SpandauGermany700 - 830Early Middle AgeSlavic1CattleMetatarsus18Becker 1990, fig. 1, cat.-no. 9BW14 If17955
Berlin-SpandauGermany983 - 1030High Middle AgeSlavic1HorseRadius2, 3, 7Becker 1990, fig. 1, cat.-no. 4BW23 If17889
Berlin-SpandauGermany1100 - 1150High Middle AgeSlavic1Red DeerRadius2, 3, 6, 7Becker 1990, fig. 1, 3g, cat.-no. 1BW 20 If17887
Berlin-SpandauGermany1100 - 1200High Middle AgeSlavic1CattleRadius3Becker 1990, fig. 1, 3e, 4a, cat.-no. 2BW 17 IF19683
Berlin-SpandauGermany970 - 983Early Middle AgeSlavic1HorseRadius2, 3, 6, 7Becker 1990, fig. 1, 3c, 4b, cat.-no. 10BW17 If19685
Berlin-SpandauGermany940 - 983Early Middle AgeSlavic1roe deerRadius2Becker 1990, fig. 1, 3a, 5b, cat.-no. 12; 2003, 207, fig. 3.5BW14 If18679
Berlin-SpandauGermany1100 - 1150High Middle AgeSlavic1HorseRadius3Becker 1990, cat.-no. 8BW17 If18246
Berlin-SpandauGermany1100 - 1150High Middle AgeSlavic1HorseRadius3, 7Becker 1990, cat.-no. 7BW17 If17891
Berlin-SpandauGermany970 - 983Early Middle AgeSlavic1HorseRadius7, 18Becker 1990, cat.-no. 6BW17 If18780
Berlin-SpandauGermany940 - 983Early Middle AgeSlavic1HorseRadius2, 3, 7Becker 1990, cat.-no. 5BW14 If18562
Berlin-SpandauGermany1100 - 1150High Middle AgeSlavic1Horsemetacarpus2, 3semi-finishedBecker 1990, 30, cat.-no. 22BW20 If17880
Usedom, Gross Lübbenau, Mecklenburg, Lübeck,CösitzGermanyMiddle AgeSlavic, Viking, German129??Becker 1990, 19
Endrõd 170Hungary4th - 5th cent.Migration PeriodSarmatian1HorseMetacarpus2, 3Bartosiewicz 2003, 116-117, fig. 16; Choyke 1997, 71
Endrõd 170Hungary4th - 5th cent.Migration PeriodSarmatian2HorseMetacarpus2Bartosiewicz 2003, 116-117, fig. 16; Choyke 1997, 71
Endrõd 170Hungary4th - 5th cent.Migration PeriodSarmatian1HorseMetacarpusBartosiewicz 2003, 116-117, fig. 16; Choyke 1997, 71
MerseburgGermanyno dateno date1HorseMetacarpus2, 3, 6, 8, 9holes ¿ 7 mmBarthel 1969, 225Landesmuseum HalleMH 4156
NiederdorlaGermany11th - 12th cent.High Middle AgeEarly German1HorseMetacarpus2, 3Barthel 1969, 220, pl. 35.1Museum WeimarMW 435/65
MühlhausenGermany11th - 12th cent.High Middle AgeEarly German1HorseRadius7Barthel 1969, 219, pl. 37.2Museum Weimar
Gera-TinzGermanyRoman Iron Age1HorseMetacarpus2, 4, 7Barthel 1969, 217; Dusek 1999, 187Museum WeimarMW 742/65
GisperslebenGermanyno dateno date1HorseMetatarsus2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 17Barthel 1969, 216-217, pl. 33.2Museum WeimarMW 266/62
OberdorlaGermanyRoman Iron Age1HorseMetacarpus2, 4, 7, 17Barthel 1969, 211-212, 223-224, pl. 34.1Museum WeimarMW 306/64/15
OberdorlaGermanyRoman Iron Age1HorseMetatarsus2, 4, 6, 7, 17,Barthel 1969, 211-212, 223, pl. 32.2Museum WeimarMW III/56/40
OberdorlaGermanyRoman Iron Age1HorseMetatarsus2, 10hole Ø 17 mmBarthel 1969, 211-212, 223, pl. 32.1Museum WeimarMW 12/60
OberdorlaGermanyRoman Iron Age1HorseMetacarpus1, 2Barthel 1969, 211-212, 222, pl. 34.2Museum WeimarMW 127/62
EsensGermany7th cent.Early Middle AgeFrisian1CattleMetapodium2, 3, 6, 7Bärenfänger 2002, 259, 282, 285, fig. 51.2
Emden, Dorfwurt WolthusenGermanyLate Middle Age1fragmentBärenfänger 2008, 231, fig. 27.2Ostfriesische Landschaft Aurich
Birka • Grab 573Sweden8th - 10th cent.Early Middle AgeViking1cattleradius2worn down til medullary cavityArbman 1940, T. 157.7; 1943, 38, 187; Stenberger 1955, 1106
Birka • Grab 780Sweden8th - 10th cent.Early Middle AgeViking1cattlemetatarsus2Arbman 1940, T. 157.6; 1943, 38, 284; Stenberger 1955, 1106
Moosseedorf, Kanton BernSwitzerlandno date1horsemetatarsus2Anonymus 1898b, 177; Grütter, pers. com. 16.1.1995; Gummel 1923, 19; Hampe 2010, 46; von Trölsch 1902, 101Bernisches Historisches Museum1186
Burg im Spreewald, Kreis Lübben, SchlossbergGermanyno date?Anonymus 1898b, 177
BerlinGermany19th cent.?Modern Time1SheepMandibulawith wooden footholdAnonymus 1898b, 176; Friedel 1898, 325; Herman 1902, 226, fig. 134Museum für deutsche Volkstrachten Berlin
Ketzin, BurgwallGermanyno dateno date1horsemetacarpusAnonymus 1898b, 175; Nehring 1897Museum für Völkerkunde Berlin
Ketzin, BurgwallGermanyno dateno date1horsemetatarsusAnonymus 1898b, 175; Nehring 1897Museum für Völkerkunde Berlin
Ketzin, BurgwallGermanyno dateno date1cattlemetacarpusAnonymus 1898b, 175; Nehring 1897Museum für Völkerkunde Berlin
Ketzin, BurgwallGermanyno dateno date1cattleradiusAnonymus 1898b, 175; Nehring 1897Museum für Völkerkunde Berlin
Bromberg, BurgGermanyno dateno date1horsemetacarpusAnonymus 1898b, 175-176; Nehring 1897
Berlin, Spree, Stralauer Straße 36GermanyMiddle Age2Anonymus 1898aMärkisches Museum BerlinMM.B.IV.1666a-b
Potzlow, Kreis TemplinGermanyno dateno date5Anonymus 1898aMärkisches Museum BerlinMM.B.II.9192-9197
Toppenwerder bei Alt-RuppinGermanyno dateno date2Anonymus 1898aMärkisches Museum BerlinMM.B.II.10448-10449
ÅrhusDenmark10th - 13th cent.High - Late Middle Age1cattlemetacarpus2, 3fragmentAndersen et al. 1971, 141-142CND
ÅrhusDenmark10th - 13th cent.High - Late Middle Age1horsemetatarsus2fragmentAndersen et al. 1971, 141DKP
ÅrhusDenmark10th - 13th cent.High - Late Middle Age3??Andersen et al. 1971, 141
Ribe, DomerhavenDenmarkEarly Middle AgeViking1CattleMetatarsus2Ambrosiani 1981, 138-139, fig. 88D 6008
Ribe, DomerhavenDenmarkEarly Middle AgeViking1Cattle or HorseMetapodiumAmbrosiani 1981, 138-1397709
Ribe, DomerhavenDenmarkEarly Middle AgeViking1Cattle or HorseMetapodiumAmbrosiani 1981, 138-139D 6558
IcelandIceland1878Modern Time2??Allen 1896, 33-34
Medemblik, KerksteegNetherlandsLate Middle Age1HorseRadius1, 2, 3, 5ADC rapport 608MEDK-06-04
Prellenkirchen, Leitha-MarschAustriaEarly Iron AgeLate Laténe1horsemetatarsus2, 4, 5Adam, in prep.; Kunst, e-mail 26.6.2003 + 9.7.2009
Bremen, WummensiedeGermany9th - 10th cent.Early Middle Age1HorseMetapodiumFocke-Museum BremenFM 8022
RibeDenmark10th - 12th cent.High Middle AgeViking1HorseMetacarpus2, 4Exhibition Museum Ribes Vikinger 12/20053365
RibeDenmark10th - 12th cent.High Middle AgeViking1HorseMetatarsusExhibition Museum Ribes Vikinger 12/20053265 ?
RibeDenmark10th - 12th cent.High Middle AgeViking1HorseMetapodium1, 2, 8Exhibition Museum Ribes Vikinger 12/20057744
RibeDenmark10th - 12th cent.High Middle AgeViking2HorseMetapodium1, 2, 8Exhibition Museum Ribes Vikinger 12/2005
HaithabuGermany10th - 12th cent.High Middle AgeViking1HorseMetapodium2Exhibition Wikingermuseum Haithabu 11/2000
HaithabuGermany10th - 12th cent.High Middle AgeViking2HorseMetapodium2, 5Exhibition Wikingermuseum Haithabu 11/2000
HaithabuGermany10th - 12th cent.High Middle AgeViking1HorseMetatarsus2, 8Exhibition Wikingermuseum Haithabu 11/2000
HaithabuGermany10th - 12th cent.High Middle AgeViking1?RadiusExhibition Wikingermuseum Haithabu 11/2000
ArchipelagoFinlandca. 1850Modern Time2HorseMetatarsus2, 11, 12, 13, 19oblique hole through center of distal end; one specimen with two additional holes proximal; called downhill skates"" by donator"Turku Provincial Museum15053:3
NauvoFinland19th cent. ?Modern Time2HorseMetatarsus2, 11, 12, 17, 19Turku Provincial Museum2093
NauvoFinland19th cent. ?Modern Time1HorseMetacarpus2, 11, 12, 17, 19Turku Provincial Museum2095
DurhamGreat Britainno dateno date1??Exhibition Durham Archaeological Museum 8/20021984:06:14
BjörkoFinlandno dateno date2HorseMetacarpus2, 13, 19one specimen with vertical hole at proximal endExhibition National Museum of Finland Helsinki 2/2004784
Bremen, StromGermanyno dateno date2HorseMetapodiumFocke-Museum BremenFM 9929
Bremen, StromGermanyno dateno date1HorseRadius2, 3, 6, 7Focke-Museum BremenFM 9929
Bremen, StromGermanyno dateno date1?RadiusFocke-Museum BremenFM 9929
Bremen, WeserGermanyno dateno date1HorseMetacarpus8Focke-Museum Bremen
AmsterdamNetherlandsno dateno date1HorseMetacarpusde Vegt, Bremen, Germany77
GroningenNetherlandsno dateno date15??Groningen Instituut voor Archeologie
HaithabuGermany10th - 12th cent.High Middle AgeViking1HorseMetatarsus2, 3Archäologisch-Zoologische Arbeitsgruppe Schleswig (AZA)
CsontkorcsolyaHungary16th cent.Early Modern Time1HorseRadius2, 3, 4, 5Exhibition Museum of Hungarian Agriculture 12/200688
CsontkorcsolyaHungary16th cent.Early Modern Time1HorseRadiusExhibition Museum of Hungarian Agriculture 12/2006
Schleswig-HolsteinGermany8th - 10th cent.Early middle AgeViking2??exhibition Heimatmuseum Nordstrand
Saint-DenisFranceMiddle Age1Cattleradius2, 5Unité d'Archéologie Saint-Denis800103,1
Saint-DenisFranceMiddle Age19MetapodiumUnité d'Archéologie Saint-Denis
St. DenisFranceMiddle Age1cattleradiusMusée d'Art et d'Histoire
Wroclaw, MagnicePolandRoman Iron Age1horsemetpodium2exhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/2009
Domaslaw, district WroclawPoland5exhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/2009
Niemcza, district DzierzoniowPoland8exhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/2009
Polwica, distr. OlawskiPolandRoman Iron Age1horsemetacarpusexhibition Archaeological Museum Wroclaw 9/2009
Polwica, distr. OlawskiPolandRoman Iron Age1horsemetacarpusexhibition Archaeological Museum Wroclaw 9/20095/1702
Wroclaw, Ostrow TumskiPolandMiddle Age1horsemetatarsus1, 2, 8, 13oblique hole proximoplantarexhibition Archaeological Museum Wroclaw 9/20096
OpolePolandMiddle Age1horseradius2, 3, 4, 5exhibition Archaeological Museum Wroclaw 9/200919
Wroclaw, OsobowicePolandMiddle Age1horsemetacarpus1, 2, 8, 13oblique hole proximopalmarexhibition Archaeological Museum Wroclaw 9/200925
Wroclaw, OsobowicePolandMiddle Age1horsemetatarsus1, 2, 5, 13oblique hole proximoplantarexhibition Archaeological Museum Wroclaw 9/200925
Wroclaw, Ostrow TumskiPolandMiddle Age5horse, cattlemetapodium, radius, costaexhibition Archaeological House Wroclaw 9/2009
ÖlandSwedenMiddle Age1horsemetapodium13, 193 holes distalexhibition Eketorps Museum 7/2010
ÖlandSwedenMiddle Age2?radius2exhibition Eketorps Museum 7/2010
BirkaSweden8th - 10th cent.High Middle AgeViking1cattlemetatarsusexhibition Birka Museum 7/2010
OldorferwarfGermany7th - 10th cent.Early - High Middle Age1cattleradiusexhibition Küstenmuseum Wilhelmshaven 10/2011
OldorferwarfGermany7th - 10th cent.Early - High Middle Age1horsemetacarpus2exhibition Küstenmuseum Wilhelmshaven 10/2011
Jever, HohenkirchenGermanyMiddle Age1horsemetacarpus9Schlossmuseum Jever6625
Jever, HohenkirchenGermanyMiddle Age1horsemetacarpus1, 2Schlossmuseum Jever6625
Jever, Kirchplatz 15GermanyMiddle Age1horsemetacarpus1, 2, 8worn down till medullar cavitiySchlossmuseum Jever6626
OxfordUnited Kingdomno dateno date1HorseRadiusMuseum of Oxford